AP Biology - Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration

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fermentation

partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen

oxidation

loss of electrons from one substance

reduction

addition of electrons to one substance

reducing agent

the electron donor in a redox reaction

oxidizing agent

the electron acceptor in a redox reaction

NAD+

electron acceptor and oxidizing agent for cellular respiration and fermentation

electron transport chain

a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP

oxidative phosphorylation

the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain

substrate-level phosphorylation

mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding inorganic phosphate to ADP

acetyl CoA

the entry compound for the Krebs Cycle in cellular respiration

ATP synthase

the enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate

cytochromes

an iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochodria and the membranes of prokaryotic cells

proton-motive force

the potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across a biological membrance

net products of Glycolysis

2 Pyruvate, 2 H20, 2ATP, 2NADH +2H+

products of Krebs Cycle

4CO2, 6NADH+6H+, 2ATP, 2FADH2

net products of ETC

34-38 ATP + 6H2O

products of pre-Krebs Cylcle

2 Acetyl CoA, 2 CO2, 2NADH + 2H+

obligate anaerobes

carry out only fermentation or anaerobic respiration (cannot survive in the prescence of oxygen)

faculative anaerobes

can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration

beta oxidation

a metabolic sequence that breaks the fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA

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