joints and body movements

amphiarthroses

typically allows a slight degree of movement

Synovial Joint

have a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrouding a joint

Suture

joint between most SKULL bones

Pivot

joint between the axis and atlas (synovial joint)

tendonitis

inflammation of tendon sheaths

Ball & Socket

hip joint (synovial)

Condyloid

joint between forearm bones and wrist

hyperextension

extension of a bone beyond normal anatomical position

Fiberous Joint

sutures (skull) are the most remembered examples

Hinge joint example

elbow (synovial) and interphalangeal joints (synovial)

Gliding joint example

intercarpal joints (synovial)

Pivot joint example

joint between the skull and vertebral column

Retraction

move structure interiorly or towards it beginning position

Articular Cartilage

hyaline cartilage covering that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed; resilient

Ligaments, fibrous capsule and muscle tendons

resists tension placed on joints and helps prevent dislocation

Synovial fluid

lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces and keeps joints from overheating

Condyloid

joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones (synovial)

Plantar flexion

sole of foot pushes downward; pointing the toes

Cartilaginous Joint

type of joint in which cartilage connects the bony portions

Elbow, knee, and interphalangeal joints

example of a hinge joint

Abduction

moving a limb away from midline

Fiberous Joint

type of joint in which bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue

Inversion

sole of foot inward

synarthroses

Essentially immoveable joints

Circumduction

movements of flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction in the shape of a "cone" in space

sprain

joint injury where ligaments reinforcing the joint are stretched or torn

Dorsiflexion

up on heel of foot; toe towards shin

bursitis

inflammation of bursa usually caused by excessive stress or friction

Elevation

move body part upward

dislocation

occurs when bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity

synchondroses and symphysis

two types of cartilaginous joints

Flexion

decrease angle @ joint

Gliding

one body part slides past another

Pronation

turning the palm of the hand downward or posteriorly

Synovial Joint

include the hip, knee, and elbow joints

Protraction

move structure anteriorly

Rotation

turning movement of a bone around its long axis

Condyloid joint example

knuckles

hip and shoulder joints

example of a ball and socket joint

Supination

turning the palm of the hand upward or anteriorly

diathroses

freely moveable joint

Eversion

sole of foot outward

carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

example of a saddle joint

Joint between C1 and C2

example of a pivot joint

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

three structural classifications of joints

Adduction

moving a limb towards midline

bursae

flattened tiny sacs of fluid that are located near joints and help reduce friction

synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses

three functional classifications of joints

synovial joint

only type of joint with a joint cavity present

sutures, sydesmoses, gomphosis

three types of fibrous joints

distal end of tibia and fibula

example of a syndesmoses joint

gomphosis

articulation of a tooth with its bony socket

synchondroses

a bar or plate of cartilage unites the bones and usually disappears (ossifies) with age

symphysis

articular surfaces covered with hyaline cartilage which fuses into a pad or plate of fibrocartilage; example: intervertebral joints

articular capsule

double layered capsule that encloses the synovial joint

fibrous capsule

tough, external part of the articular capsule; continuous with the periosteum of bone

synovial membrane

loose connective tissue that lines the fibrous capsule internally

tendon sheath

elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction

Extension

increase angle @ joint

articular surfaces, ligaments, muscle tone

factors that affect the stability of synovial joints

arthritis

inflammation or degeneration of the joints - most widespread and crippling disease in the US - over 100 different types

Depression

move body part downward

articulation

site where two bones meet

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