The systematic study of Animal Behavior
An approach to studying ethology that involves mathematical models and can predict what might happen (optimality theory)
Influence on behavior that deals with a single individual w/i its lifetime. Includes HOW and/or WHAT questions. Developmental and Physiological explanations.
An approach to ethology that fuses together many unconnected ideas to advance understanding (e.g. inclusive fitness)
An approach to ethology that uses the scientific method.
A long term evolutionary cause of a behavior
Author of Sociobiology. Talks about the 'selfish gene' i.e. natural selection favors those genes that increase the expected relative reproductive success of their bearers. (guppy experiement)
occurs when variants of a trait that best suit an organism to its environment, and that are heritable, increase in frequency over evolutionary time. Requires variation, fitness differences, and heritability.
The process of chromosomes 'crossing over' during sexual reproduction which can create new trait variations
lifetime reproductive success; number of viable offspring produced by an individual
traits that are shared by two or more species as a result of common descent i.e. flippers/fins/hands
Different populations or species converge on the same phenotypic characteristics as a result of similar selection pressures
Any change in genetic structure
The movement of organisms over long distances (often seasonal).
a trait that results in the highest fitness among a specified set of behaviors in a particular environment. Typically the result of natural selection.
traits that are similar as a result of similar selection pressures rather than common descent. i.e. wings in bats, birds, insects
a pathway from an external stimulus to a response with a threshold to achieve
becoming less sensitive to stimuli over time
the expression of a gene as a result of environmental or behavioral triggers
encourages researchers to design experiments that test both proximate and ultimate factors
a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. Does not involve learning from others.
becoming more sensitive to stimuli over time
a stimulus that elicits a vigorous response in the absence of training
a type of stimuli that is associated with an unpleasant experience (i.e. shock, nausea)
the observable characteristics of an organism.
the learned response to a conditioned stimulus
the ability of an organism to produce different phenotypes depending on environmental conditions
a stimulus that initially fails to elicit a particular response, but comes to do so when it is associated with a second (unconditioned) stimulus.
any stimulus that is considered positive, pleasant, or rewarding.
integrates biological and psycological approaches to the study of animal learning
the transfer of information from individual to individual through teaching or social learning- both within and between generations of animals
an individual is drawn to a particular area because it observed another individual in that location
the aquisition of a novel response through observation of a demonstrator making that response.
occurs when one individual serves as an instructor and at least one other individual acts as a student who learns from the instructor. More active and complicated role than toehr methods of learning.
learning via the observation of others.
the mere presence of a model, regardless of what it does, facilitates learning on the part of an observer.
behavior that occurs when an observer repeats the actions of a demonstrator. Copier is often rewarded for whatever behavior is had copied.
a form of natural selection that, according to Darwin, involves a struggle between the individuals of one sex, generally the males, for the possession othe the other sex
a form of sexual selection in which individuals of one sex choose which individuals of the toher sex to take as mates.
the act of copying the mate choice of others (grouse lek)
a form of sexual selection where members of one sex compete with each other for access to the other sex.
juveniles learn which types of opposite sex to prefer based on parents choices. (japanese quail)
studies sexual selection in guppies and the effects of symmetry on mate choice
a mode of cultural transmission that involves offspring learning from parents
cultural transmission that involes offspring learning from peers
cultural transmission that involves young animals learning from non-related elder animals