A major stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone is:
reduced blood volume.
Acidosis results in increasing levels of what ion?
Currently, many states perform capital punishment (execution) using potassium chloride injection. Why would this kind of an injection cause death?
Increased K+ results in disruption of the electric potential of cardiac tissue.
Normal arterial blood pH is:
between 7.35 and 7.45.
enhances release of calcium from bone.
The condition in which sodium levels are too low is referred to as
The largest percentage of body water is located in what compartment?
The major source of water loss from the body is:
The most prevalent electrolyte in the extracellular fluid is:
The only organ of the body that can remove excess fixed acids is the
When the concentration of Na+ in the ECF decreases:
there is an increase in the level of aldosterone.
Which condition would cause a drop in pH?
Which statement about acids is true?
Weak acids only dissociate partially in solution.
The only cation exerting significant osmotic pressure in the ECF is:
The most important buffer system in the intracellular fluid compartment (ICF) is the:
protein buffer system.
Infants are more likely to experience problems regulating acid-base balance because of several factors, including
inefficiency of infant kidneys.
Which of the following tissues is the least hydrated?
Which of the following individuals would have the most body water?
__________ circulates throughout the body and links the internal and external environments.
Water lost through expired air is referred to as:
insensible water loss.
All of the following would occur if there was an increase in plasma osmolality, except:
production of large amounts of urine
All of the following factors would stimulate the hypothalamic thirst center, except:
hypotonic extracellular fluid
Diuresis peaks _________ after drinking water.
Edema is accumulation of fluid in the ____________.
All of the following would cause edema, except:
Electrolyte balance in the body usually refers to the balance of _________.
Pica occurs when there is a deficiency of _________ in the body.
minerals such as iron
Renal acid-base control is coupled to:
Estrogens are chemically similar to _________ and are therefore associated with water retention.
Any arterial pH between _________ is considered physiological acidosis.
7.0 - 7.35