Chapter 21 - structure and function of cardiovascular system

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patho

What is the main function of the circulatory system?

transport

What two things does the circulatory system deliver to the tissues?

oxygen and nutrients

What does the circulatory system circulate?

electrolyetes and hormones

What does the circulatory help regulate in the body?

temperature

What are the two parts of the circulatory system?

pulmonary and systemic circulation

What does the pulmonary circulation move?

blood through the lungs

What does the systemic circulation supply?

all other tissues in body

What are the two types of circulation?

central and peripheral

What is the central circulation?

blood that is in the heart and pulmonary circulation

What is the peripheral circulation?

blood that is outside the central circulation

What do both the pulmonary and systemic circulations have?

a pump, arterial system, venous system, and capillaries

What is the function of arteries?

to move blood to the tissues

What do capillaries serve as?

an exchange system

What is exchanged at the capillaries?

gases, nutrients, wastes

What is the function of veins?

to store blood, and bring blood back to the heart

What side of the heart is involved in the pulmonary circulation?

right side

What side of the heart is involved in the systemic circulation?

left side

What structures are in the pulmonary circulation?

pulmonary artery, capillaries, and veins

What structures are in the systemic circulation?

aorta, capilaries, systemic venous system and vena cava

What do the capillaries supply in the systemic circulation?

brain and peripheral tissue

Which blood pressure is higher? arterial or venous?

arterial

What does hemo mean?

blood

What does dynamic refer to?

relation between motion and force

What are the most important factors in hemodynamics?

pressure, resistance, and flow

What is blood flow determined by?

pressure difference, and the resistance that blood most overcome

What is laminar blood flow?

center flowing faster then sides

What is turbulent blood flow?

disordered flow

What direction does blood flow in turbulent flow?

crosswise and lengthwise

What is compliance?

how distendable a blood vessel is

What are the three layers of the heart?

pericardium, myocardium, enocardium

What holds the heart in place?

pericardium

What is the myocardium?

muscular portion

What does the myocardium form?

walls of atria and ventricles

What lines the heart?

endocardium

What are AV and semilunar valves?

pressure valves that ensure one way flow

Where is the bicuspid valve found?

on left side

Where is the tricuspid valves found?

on right side

What is the cardiac cycle used to describe?

rhythmic pumping action of heart

What are the two parts of the cardiac cycle?

systole and diastole

What occurs during systole?

ventricles are contraction

What occurs during diastole?

ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood

What does the P wave of the cardiac cycle represent?

depolarization of atrial mass

What does the QRS wave of the cardiac cycle represent?

depolarization of ventricular conduction system and mass

What does the T wave of the cardiac cycle represent?

repolarization of the ventricles

What causes valves to open?

pressure

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