His journey launched a new era of transatlantic trade known as Columbian Exchange.
An english privateer who raided St. Augustine and several other Spanish ports. His thefts severly weakened the finances of the Spanish empire. He became the 1st English captain to sail around the world.
A group of Separatists who decided to make a new home in North America, where they hoped they could be free to worship as they wanted.
Puritans who wanted and created separate churches of their own.
People who complained that the Anglican Church continued too many Catholic practice and traditions. They wanted a purer kind of church.
A sea dog who tried to start a colony on Roanoke Island twice. His 1st attempt ended when the starving settlers abandoned the colony and went home. The 2nd attempt ended when settlers started to vanish.
A Separatist minister who was banished from Massachuetts after quarreling with Puritan authorities. He believes that land could only be rightfully owned through a direct purchase from the Native Americans living there. He also believed that the government should not interfere or punish settlers over matters of religion. He started the Providence settlement, which joined with other separatist communities to become the colony of Rhode Island. His colony was remarkable because it quaranteed religious tolerance to all settlers.
Bacon raised a private army to fight the Native Americans and take their land. He and his supporters burned Jamestown and controlled nearly all of Virginia. This rebellion showed that the frontier settlers were frustrated with a government concerned only about the interest of small wealthy planters and that the poorer colonists were unwilling to tolerate such a government.
A settlement named after King James I. Colonists started this settlement near the mouth of the James River.
Included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The settlers of these colonies came from several countries. They are called this colony because they are in the middle of the Atlantic Coast of North America.
New England Colonies
English colonies along the Atlantic Coast. Such as present day Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachuetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine
The area colonized by France in North America. This land went from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
A state in the New England region of the United States. This state was the first of the 13 colonies to declare its independence from Britain. It was also the last state to ratify the constitution.
In this settlement some settlers were never found and remains one of the world's greatest mysteries.
Included Maryland, the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia. Virginia was the 1st of this colony and all of these colonies started out as proprietary colonies.
Economy of Virginia
Held that a country should try to get and keep as much gold and silver as possible
This system required large farms on which on which crops are raised mainly for sale.
The time period in the early 1700s, when Great Britain didn't enforce its trade regulations in the colonies because neglect served British economies better than strict enforcement. As a result the colonies prospered without much government interference.
Farming whose products are intended to provide for the basic needs of the farmer, with little surplus for marketing.
The founder of the Sons of Liberty.
Those who opposed the constitution. They believed that the Federalists' plan posed a threat to state governments and to the rights of individuals. They saw the constitution as a betrayal of the American Revolution.
Those who favored the Constitution. They wanted the strong national government the constitution provided. Some of these people were George Washington, James Madison, and John Jay.
King of England during the American Revolution.
An artisan with little formal education. He avoided the referenced to Greek and Latin literature that were common in writing at the time. He wrote in a simple direct style.
The first president of the United States and was head commander of the American forces in the American Revolution. He also set several precedents such as a two-term maximum for presidential office.
Boston Tea Party
In this event colonists dressed as Native Americans boarded tea ships of the British East India Company and dumped their tea into the Boston Harbor.
First Continental Congress
Committees of Correspondence in several colonies called for a meeting to plan a united response to these developments. They adopted a number of measures. Among these were a renewed boycott of British goods and a call to the people of all the English colonies to arm themselves and form militias. The delegates made a direct appeal to the king outlining their grievances and asking for understanding.
Lexington and Concord Battles
The first battles of the Revolutionary War.
This is also known as the Constitutional Convention because the purpose of this convention was to create a new government rather than fix current one or revise the Articles of Confederation. The outcome of this convention was the United States Constitution.
Second Continental Congress
"Common Sense" appeared during the time they met in Philadelphia. The same delegates from the 1st meeting were at this meeting. New members included Benjamin Franklin (Pennsylvania), John Hancock (Massachuetts), and Thomas Jefferson (Virginia). They were split between wanting independence or compromising with Britain.
Merchants and wealthy people who has loaned money to the states started to demand their money back. They pressed the impoverished states to pass high taxes in order to collect the money. In Massachuetts, legislators passed the heaviest direct tax. The tax was to be paid in gold or silver coins. Opposition came from farmers and brought back the memories of the Birtish taxes that sparked the Revolution. This man led the rebellion. They drove off tax collectors and protested the taxes with petitions and public meetings. Angry crowds rioted. Congress didn't have money to raise an army.
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from nine colonies met in New York to hold a meeting. The main organizer was James Otis. Otis argued that Britain had no right to force laws on the colonies because the colonists had no representatives in British Parliament.
Committee of Correspondence
Formed in 1772 by John Adams, James Otis, and other Bostonians to coordinate resistance throughout the colonies. By 1774 nearly all of the colonies had such committees.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. The pamphlet persuaded readers to support a complete break with Britain.
A group of electors, whose votes allows a runner to become president.
A solution to the differences between the New Jersey and Virginia Plan. It created a legislative branch made up of two houses as called for in the Virginia Plan. In one house (senate) each state would have the same number of representatives. In the House of Representatives the number of seats allowed by each states depended on a state's population.
New Jersey Plan
This plan aimed to keep state governments more powerful than the national government. It also ensured that heavily populated states would not overpower the smaller states.
The powers that the constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states.
Under this plan three-fifths of a state's slave population would be counted when determining representation. It did not mean enslaved African Americans would be allowed to vote.
This plan called for the creation of a bicameral or two-house, national legislature. Each state would send representatives in proportion to the number of its citizens.
A statesman from Kentucky who was accused by Jackson of giving votes to John Adams in return for post as Secretary of State. He endorsed government promotion of economic growth and an advocate of the Compromise of 1850.
He was named Secretary of the Treasury, which was the government's largest department. He believed that governmental power, properly used, could accomplish great things.
He was the 7th president of the United States and supported minimal government and the spoils system. He vetoed the rechartering of the national bank. He also pursued harsh policy towards Native Americans.
He was named to head the Department of State, which handles relations with foreign countries, under George Washington. He became the nation's 3rd president.
This was the first political party in the United States. They were mainly federalists.
The 5th president of the United States. He acquired Florida from Spain and declared the Monroe Doctrine to keep foreign powers out of the Americas.
Congress named him commanding general of the Patriot forces. He worked to transform the Patriot militia groups into the Continental Army. He placed big guns on Dorchester Heights, which from there could shell the British forces in the city and ships in the harbor. The British abandoned Boston in March 1776.
This rebellion started because Hamilton put a tax on whiskey. Rebels closed down courts and attacked tax collectors. It followed the tradition of Shay's Rebellion and the Stamp Act protests. The rebellion dissolved when Washington brought troops to Pittsburgh.
Election of 1800
In this election John Adams lost support from the Federalists because he calmed things down with France since the XYZ affair and the naval war instead of declaring war. Since peace was made with France the Jeffersonian Republicans' support for France became less of a rally point for the Federalists and a non-issue for the Jeffersonians. The unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts seemed less justified.
Trail of Tears
A journey that the Cherokees called because they were forced to walk for 116 days to Oklahoma Territory. Many of the Cherokees died of cold or disease as troops refused to let them pause to rest.
Washington's Farewell Address
In this speech Washington drew on years of experience and offered much advice to the young nation for the years ahead. During his terms Washington generally remained above the political bickering between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans. He did not believe political parties were good for the nation. He warned against competing political parties and also called for a foreign policy of neutrality. He warned against hatred against particular nations and passionate attachments for others.
Murbury vs Madison
In this case Chief Justice Marshall established judicial review as a power of the Supreme Court. After his defeat in the 1800 election, President Adams appointed many Federalists to the federal courts but the commissions were not delivered. Secretary of State, James Madison refused to deliver them. Marbury sued in the Supreme Court. The Court declared a portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, thereby establishing the Court's power to find acts of Congress unconstitutional.
This compromise stated that slavery would not be restricted in Missouri and congress agreed that as the USA expanded westward they would be closed to slavery.
Declaration by President Monroe that the United States would oppose efforts by an outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere.
A stern evangelical who believed that he was God's chosen instrument to end slavery. He led Bleeding Kansas and Harper's Ferry.
Proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and was an Illinois senator who proposed the building of a rail line across the Great Plains.
One of the most popular speakers and a key leader of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He was also a former slave. He was educated by his slave owner's wife.
Free Soil Party
A former U.S. political party (1848-56) that opposed the extension of slavery in the Territories not yet admitted to statehood.
He was the 16th president of the United States. He is best known for his effective leadership during the Civil War and his Emancipation Proclamation declaring the end of slavery in Confederate-held territory.
This party dedicated themselves to putting an end to slavery. They believed that slavery was a great moral evil and vowed to fight against its extension into new territories. They also demanded the repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Act. Members included farmers, professionals, small business owners, and craftworkers.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
The author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
A woman anti-slavery speaker who was a conductor on the Underground Railroad and a women's rights activist.
He was an inventor who developed the cotton gin in 1793 which rapidly increased cotton production in the South and led to a greater demand for slave labor.
On May 24 John Brown led several New Englanders to a proslavery settlement near Pottawatomie Creek. There Brown and his men roused five men from their beds, dragged them from their homes, and killed them in front of their families. This sparked a summer of murderous raids and counterraids throughout Kansas.
Election of 1860
Southern democrats nominated John Breckinridge as their candidate. He was committed to to an aggressive policy of expanding slavery in the territories. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas of Illinois who supported popular sovereignty.
This battle started the American Civil War. After this battle several southern states seceded from the Union. They seceded because they wanted the Union to withdraw their troops from this fort.
This was started by John Brown to start a slave rebellion by seizing an United States arsenal. This raid was defeated by U.S. Marines and colonel Robert E. Lee.
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay's plan for a compromise over slavery. He proposed 5 separate laws which favored the North and some of which favored the South. 1) Congress would admit California as a free state 2) The people of New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves whether slavery would be legal 3) Congress would abolish the sale of slaves, but not slavery, in Washington, D.C. 4) Texas would give up claims to New Mexico for $10 million 5) Fugitive Slave Act
Dred Scott Case
This enslaved man filed a suit against his owner. He argued that because he and his wife had once lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal they were in fact free. The supreme ruled against him because he was a slave and slaves were not citizens and didn't have a right to sue in court.
Fugitive Slave Law
This law would order all citizens of the United states to assist in the return of enslaved people who had escaped from their owners. It would also deny a jury trial to escaped slaves.
Stephen Douglas proposed this act to win support of both the Northerners and the Southerners in the senate. This act supported the practice of popular sovereignty instead of restricting the decision-making power to congress. He wanted to repeal the Missouri Compromise and its boundary line and rely instead on popular sovereignty.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that became the most powerful statement against slavery. This book presented a vivid picture of slavery in the South that northern readers found believable even if it was exaggerated. As people read this book many Northerners believed that slavery would be the ruin of the United States.
A political group that opposed the Civil War. These democrats warned that Republican policies would bring a flood of freed slaves to the North. They predicted that those freed slaves would take jobs away from whites.
The Confederate president.
Ulysses S. Grant
He led the most successful Union forces in the West during the War in the West. His great organizing and training a group of Illinois volunteers caused Lincoln to promote him from colonel to general. He also became the president after Andrew Johnson. His was the president in charge for most the Reconstruction.
A confederate general during the Civil War. He was the leader of the Confederate wins in Battle of Bull Run, the Second Battle of Bull Run, and Antietam. He was the confederate general who had previous knowledge of war strategies.
Robert E. Lee
He took command of the Confederate Army after Joseph Johnston died. He believed in good training and planning and he understood that victory sometimes depends on the willingness to take chances. He tricked Lincoln into thinking his troops were coming for Washington, D.C., and attacked the Union troops outside Richmond, Virginia.
A Union general during the Civil War. He led Union troops on a march to sea to capture Savannah, Georgia.
Bull Run 1861
During this battle the Confederates were camped along Bull Run, a stream that passed about four miles north of Manassas, Virginia. It took the Union army nearly four days to reach there because of their lack of training and discipline. The Unions delay allowed the Confederate army to strengthen. Therefore the Union faced an army nearly the size of his. The counterattack the next day resulted in the Union retreat. This was the first major battle in the Civil War.
Lincoln proclaimed that on January 1, 1863 slaves in areas of rebellion against the government would be free. It applied to places under Confederate control. Northerners feared that freed people coming North would cause unemployment. Black Northerners were happy. It also ended any chance that France and Great Britain would intervene in the war.
In lincoln's speech he reminded listeners of the North's reason for fighting the Civil War: to preserve a young country unmatched by any other country in history in its commitment to the principles of freedom, equality, and self-government.
A war in which every available weapon is used and the nation's full financial resources are devoted
This is what the unified nation was called.
The idea of bolting iron plates to an old wooden steamship.
Because he fired an official and broke the Tenure of Office Act he was impeached. 11 articles of impeachment were drafted. He was the 1st president in US history to become impeached.
Northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South. Southerners gave them this name because it referred to a type of cheap suitcase that was made from carpet scraps. The name implied that these Northerners had stuffed some clothes into a carpetbag and rushed in to profit from the southern misery. They were usually former union soldiers, black northerners, Freedmen's Bureau officials, businessmen, clergy, and political leaders. Regarded Reconstruction governments as corrupt and incompetent.
He was the 19th president of the United States and promised to withdraw Union troops from the south in order to end dispute over his election and end the Civil War.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society formed by six former Confederate soldiers living in Pulaski, Tennessee. Members wore robes and masks and pretended to be the ghosts of Confederate soldiers, returned from the dead in search of revenge against the enemies of the South. This group spread throughout the South due to rage and fear of Confederacy's defeat and toward the newly won freedom of black southerners. They pledged to defend the social and political superiority of whites against what they called the aggressions of an inferior race. Members usually consisted of ex-Confederate officials and plantation owners who had been excluded from politics.
This group believed that the Civil War had been fought over the moral issue of slavery. They insisted the main goal of Reconstruction should be a total reconstruction of society to guarantee black people true equality.
These were southern white republicans who were viewed as traitors. Some were former whigs who had opposed secession, small farmers who represented the planter class, and many were poor. Regarded Reconstruction governments as corrupt and incompetent.
This amendment ended slavery in the United States forever.
This amendment created equal rights to citizens of the United States, which were people born or living in it.
This amendment stated that no citizen may be denied the right to vote in the US or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It was one of the enduring legacies of the Reconstruction.
Laws that restricted freedmen's rights in the South, which established virtual slavery. Black people could not gather after sunset. Freedmen convicted of vagrancy (not working) could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year's labor. Freedmen had to sign agreements for a year of work and those who quit in the middle of the contract lost all wages they had earned. Freed people could not rent land or homes only in rural areas, which forced them to live on plantations.
Compromise of 1877
In this compromise the Democrats agreed to give Hayes the victory in the presidential election he had not clearly won. In return the new President agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from southern states. He also agreed to support appropriations for rebuilding levees along the Mississippi River and to give huge subsidies to southern railroads. It opened the way for Democrats to regain control of southern politics and marked the end of Reconstruction.
Enforcement Act of 1870
This act banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race.
Jim Crow Laws
These laws deemed Blacks and Whites separate but equal, but in reality they were separate and unequal
Plessy v. Ferguson
In this case African American Homer Plessy argued that his right to equal protection of the laws was violated by a Louisiana law that required separate seating for white and black citizens on public railroads. In its decision the Court held that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities provided for blacks were equal to those provided to whites. The Court said the 14th amendment was not intended to give Blacks social equality but only political and civil equality.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Law passed in Congress in 1867. It put the South under military rule, dividing it into five districts, each governed by a Northern general. It orders southern states to hold new elections for delegates to create new state constitutions. It required states to allow all qualified male voters including African Americans to vote in the elections. It temporarily barred those who had supported the Confederacy from voting. It required southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. It required the states to ratify the Fourth Amendment.
Tensure of Office Act
Law passed by congress in 1867 that placed limits on the President's power to hire and fore government officials. It demanded that the Senate approve the firing of those officials as well thereby limiting the President's power to create an administration to his own liking.
Passage in a law that exempts a group of people from obeying the law if they met certain conditions before the law was passed.
In this type of farming the farmers did not own the land they farmed. But the farmers paid to rent the land just as you might rent an apartment today. Tenants chose what crops to plant and when and how much to work. As a result tenants had a higher social status than sharecroppers.
A farming arrangement where a family farmed some portion of a planter's land. As payment, the family was promised a share of the crop at harvest time, generally 1/3 or 1/2 of the yield. And the planter usually provided housing for the family.
He promised his dad that he would never sell their scenic, fruitful homeland in the Northwest. They were forced to flee in 1877, and he surrendered and he and his band were exiled into Indian Territory in Oaklahoma. It's said he died of a broken heart.
Buffalo Bill Cody
He got his nickname because he was contracted to supply the Kansas Pacific Railroad workers with buffalo meat. He killed over 4,000 buffalo in 18 months. He was also a soldier in the Civil War.
A sioux Chief who left the reservation in the Black Hills because he did not sign the Fort Laramie Treaty. In the Battle of Little Bighorn he was killed after he surrendered.
He was sent by the government in 1874 to investigate rumors of gold in the Black Hills. He reported that the hills craddled gold. In 1876 he was sent to round up the Sioux. The Sioux wiped out Custer and his 200 soldiers in an hour near the Little Bighorn River.
He encouraged his people to practice the ghost dance, in the hopes that they would return to traditional life. When officers arrived he resisted arrest and was shot and killed.
He was a Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States for expansion into Apache tribal lands several decades during the Apache Wars.
Battle of Little Bighorn
The Sioux of the northern plains powerfully resisted white expansion. The government enraged the Sioux by deciding to build a road through prime Sioux hunting grounds in the Bighorn Mountains. Sioux chief Red Cloud launched a two-year war to block the project. The war ended in a treaty of 1868. The treaty protected Sioux land held which included the Black Hills which were held sacred to the Sioux. George Custer went to the Black Hills in search of gold and claimed the rumors were true. They Natives wouldn't give up the land so the Americans took it by force. This battle took place along the Little Bighorn River.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This act prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country. It did not prevent entry by those who had previously established residence in the United States.
This act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each Native American family headed by a man received a play, usually 160 acres. These landowners were granted U.S. citizenship and were subject to local, state, and federal laws.
This act of 1862 stated that for a small fee settlers could have 160 acres of land if they were at least 21 years old or head of families, American citizens or immigrants filing for citizenship, built a house of a certain minimum size on their claims and lived in it for at least 6 months a year, and they had to farm the land for 5 years in a row before claiming ownership
They were usually African American, Native Americans, and immigrants and they had to survive on physical endurance, little need for sleep, sense of humor, and touch of eccentricity. Their job was to keep the herds under control and used the Chisholm Trail
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
A rebellion in Charlestown, South Carolina. The slaves burned an armory and began to march toward Spanish Florida, where a small colony of runaway slaves lived. Armed planters captured and killed the rebels.
Salem Witch Trials
Many women claimed the devil had taken control of them and were accused of being witches. Some believed this event reflected colonists' fears about political changes.
Trade and Navigation Acts
This act tightened English control over colonial trade. The new acts required the colonies to sell certain goods only to England.
Treaty of Paris 1763
This ended the French and Indian War. France turned Canada over to Britain and surrendered its claim to all lands east of the Mississippi River. The British returned Cuba to Spain in exchange for Florida.
People who had to work for a master for a period of time, usually 7 years, under a contract called an indenture. In return for their work the master paid their cost of their voyage to Virginia and gave them food and shelter. Some were promised pieces of land
Trade between 3 points in the Atlantic World: the Americas, Europe, and Africa
The African American who was shot during the Boston Massacre.
The 4th president of the United States and was called the Father of the Constitution for his leadership at the Constitutional Convention.
He was sent to alert Patriot leaders of the British coming.
Sons of Liberty
One of the groups that enforced the boycott of British goods and organize other ways or resisting British policy. Samuel Adams was one of its founders. The group kidnapped, killed or destroyed family houses and family members of the people who distributed stamps in Boston.
A Convention held by Nationalists in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss economic problems that could not be solved under the limits of the Articles. A federal plan for regulating interstate and foreign trade was sought. The convention failed to rally interest in dealing with the weaknesses in the Articles. They agreed to call another convention in Philadelphia in 1787 to try ti fix the government.
Battle of Saratoga
The Americans attacked Burgoyne's forces; a series of American victories.
Articles of Confederation
A set of laws adopted by Congress to govern the United States. They established a limited national government.
Bill of Rights
The 1st 10 amendments to the constitution. It was designed to protect citizens' rights.
One of these laws limited town meetings to once a year. Another suspended the Massachusetts general court. These acts were created to punish Boston and all of Massachusetts. Because the measures seemed so harsh, the colonists labeled them intolerable acts.
Declaration of Independence
A statement of reasons for the separation of America from Britain. The committee that wrote this were Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Benjamin Franklin. The committee chose Jefferson to draft the statement.
A series of laws that cleared the way for white settlement and statehood in the Northwest Territory.
Proclamation of 1763
This order closed the region west of the Appalachian Mountains to all settlement by colonists. It was meant to restore peace after Pontiac's Rebellion
This law placed a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and most other printed materials. It required that an official government stamp be printed on or attached to these materials to show that the tax was paid. This marked the first time the British government taxed the colonists for the stated purpose of raising money.
The law gave the British East India Company the right to sell its tea in America without paying the normal taxes. It would make their tea less expensive than smuggled tea, thereby driving the American tea merchants out of business.
These stated that the money would be used for the support of civil governments in the colonies. Britain would use this money to pay the salaries of royal governors in America. This change would weaken the legislatures and undermine self-government in the colonies.
United States Constitution
The document that governs the United States
Rights that belong to people simply because they are human, not because kings or governments granted them these rights.
Chief Justice, head of the supreme court, who helped established many important principles of constitutional law. He also helped build the prestige and authority of the Supreme Court.
This was given its name over the controversy of the Second Bank of America and the attempts to destroy it by president Andrew Jackson. At the time it was the only national bank.
Napoleon wanted to get rid of the land known as Louisiana. American was willing to pay $5 million for it.
The French were mad with the USA for Jay's Treaty with Britain and began to seize American ships. American officials were sent to Paris to negiotiate. In Paris they were met by secret agents known as X, Y, and Z. They demanded a bribe of $250,000 and a loan to the French of $10 million before they would be allowed to see the French foreign minister. Americans didn't pay and France and USA became involved in an undeclared naval war.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These acts gave the president the power to arrest and deport citizens of other countries living in the United States. People who wrote, published, or said anything false, scandalous, and malicious against the American government or its officials could be fined or jailed. It was used to silence Republican opposition.
Dartmouth College Case
The marshall court reasoned that the charter was a contract and that Dartmouth was a private corporation.
Gibbons vs Ogden
This case examined the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce. Ogden's exclusive New York ferry license gave him the right to operate steamboats to and from New York. Ogden claimed that Gibbson's federal license did not give him landing rights in New York City. Federal and state regulation of commerce conflicted. The Court strengthened the power of the United States to regulate interstate business.
In this treaty Britain agreed to leave the forts it occupied in the Northwest Territory. Other provisions were aimed at expanding trade between the two nations.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
This case is usually called the Bank of the United States case. A Maryland law required federally chartered banks to use only a special paper to print money, which amounted to a tax. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to use the paper, claiming that states could not tax the federal government. The Court declared the Maryland law unconstitutional, commenting that the power to tax implies the power to destroy.
A deal that dealt with the electoral college allowing John Quincy Adams to become president.
A belief that the constitution was only a loose framework of laws on which the government could build the nation as it saw fit. Hamilton favored this.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
This was a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. These resolutions argued that the states had the right to judge whether federal laws agreed with their constitution. If a state decided that a law was unconstitutional, it could declare that law null and void within the state.
This system gives appointed officials rewards from the successful party in an election.
A belief that government should only use the implied powers of the constitution when it was absolutely necessary. Jefferson favored this.
Bear Flag Revolt
Settlers led by William B. Ide launched a surprise attack on the town of Sonoma on June 14 and proclaimed the Republic of California. The settler's flag pictured a grizzly bear and a single star.
Crittenden introduced a plan that would recognize slavery in territories south of 36 degrees 30' N. Lincoln did not like the plan and had congress reject it.
A constitution written by a small proslavery group in Kansas.
black slavery in the southern U.S. before the Civil War.
The belief in eliminating slavery
This word refers to cotton-producing region of the Southern United States up until the Civil War.
This was articulated by Stephen Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Lincoln tried to get Douglas to decide between popular sovereignty and the Court's decision in the Dred Scott Case. Douglas said that slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery.
This prohibited antislavery petitions from being read or acted upon in the House for the next eight years. Abolitionists pointed tho this rule as proof that slavery threatened the rights of all Americans.
Letting the people in a territory decide whether to allow slavery there instead of restricting the decision-making power to congress.
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman led Union troops on a march to the sea to capture Savannah, Georgia. In Georgia the Union troops destroyed bridges, factories, and railroad lines. They also seized and slaughtered livestock. Before the Union troops entered Savannah the Confederate troops had fled.
Pacific Railroad Act
Acts of 1862 and 1864 in which the government gave large land grants to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads. The 1862 Act granted every alternate section of public land to the amount of five alternate sections per mile on each side of the railroad.
War of attrition
This type of war one side inflicts continuous losses on the enemy in order to wear down its strength.
Forty Acres and a mule
This phrase was used to describe the fact that the Union general William Sherman set up land distribution in the South. He divided confiscated coastal lands into 40-acre plats and gave them to black families.
This was created by Congress to help black southerners adjust to freedom. It was the first major federal relief agency in United States history. It lacked strong support in Congress and it was dismantled in 1869. In its short existence it gave out clothing, medical supplies, and millions of meals to both black and white war refugees.
an examination to determine whether a person meets the literacy requirements for voting, serving in the armed forces, etc.; a test of one's ability to read and write
A special fee that must be paid before a person was permitted to vote.
A new bloc of democratic voters formed by southern whites and ex-Confederates.
This stated that as an express and fundamental condition of the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory. If this passed it would have closed California and New Mexico to slavery as a requirement for their annexation. It was not passed.
A Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He helped lay the basis for the American constitutional law and made the supreme court a coequal branch of government. He enforced the principle that federal courts can exercise judicial review by disregarding law if they violated the Constitution.
He was one of the first english settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as a staple crop in Virginia. He is also known as the husband of Pocahontas.
He was a key founder in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He led the first wave of Englanders to serve as governors for the new colony. He envisioned the colony as a "city upon a hill"