## Chapter 9: The States of Matter

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hancan12345  on January 4, 2012

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# Chapter 9: The States of Matter

 kinetic theoryThis states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion.
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kinetic theory This states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion.
Properties of a Gas Gases are composed of particles that move in rapid, random motions, and often collide with perfect elasticity. They fill the volume of their containers.
contained gases Gases in sealed containers.
Temperature The measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
absolute zero The temperature at which the motion of particles stops.
barometers These measure atmospheric pressure.
gas pressure The result of many collisions of gas particles on an object.
atmospheric pressure The result of particles of air molecules colliding with objects.
pascal (Pa) The SI unit of pressure.
One millimeter of mercury (1mm Hg) The pressure needed to support a column of mercury 1 mm high.
One standard atmosphere (1 atm) The pressure required to support a column of mercury 760 mm high.
STP Conditions at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 0° C.
condensed states of matter Liquids and solids are known as these.
vaporization The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor below its boiling point.
evaporation The vaporization of an unconfined liquid.
vapor pressure The pressure that is caused by the collisions of vaporized particles colliding with the walls of a sealed container.
boiling point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure.
normal boiling point The boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 1 atm.
nematic substances In these substances, the rods are parallel to each other as they move in the liquid.
smectic substances In these substances, the rods are parallel and in layers. The rods in each layer are free to move parallel to each other.
cholesteric substances In these substances, there are layers with parallel rods, but each layer is not parallel to each other as in smectic substances.
melting point The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid.
crystal A substance where the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern.
unit cell The smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the shape of the crystal.
amorphous solids These are solids that lack an ordered structure.
supercooled liquids These are liquids that have cooled to a rigid state without becoming crystalline. Glass are amorphous solids that are often given this name.
phase change When the physical state of a substance changes.
sublimation The act of a solid passing straight to a gas, without ever being a liquid.
heat of fusion The heat required to melt one gram of a solid at its melting point.
heat of solidification The amount of heat given up as one gram of liquid changes to a solid at the melting point.
heat of vaporization The heat needed to change 1 gram of a liquid to gas at its boiling point.
heat of condensation The amount of heat given off when 1 gram of a gas condenses to a liquid at its boiling point.
plasma This state of matter occurs when a gas is heated to very high temperatures. The molecules break into atoms and the electrons fall off. The temperature needs to be at least 50,000 K to make this.

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