The kings of Austria, Russia, and Prussia made up the Holy Alliance. They were the most conservative and they thought they could interfere in any country if there was a a dissruption of peace.. The Holy alliance wanted a representative parliment.
Klemens von metternich
foreign minister of Austria. Metternich tried to maintain the European balance of power and find an international balance of political and military power. Metternich was against the ideas of a revolution. He defended his class and the privlages and special rights of that the royal class had and he beleived that the cause of the war was a direct result of all of the liberalists.
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to get rid of anyone who had ideas against what he wanted, censorship. Metternich had a group of spies that were sent out to find and punish people with any liberal or radical ideas.
Gives freedom of the individual, a system of government based on parliments, nonviolent change to political, social, or economic systeems that would allow an unrestricted advancment in everyones endevours. The government should garuntee every individuals rights and their civil liberties.
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
The leader of the Czech cultural revival, the passionate democrat and nationalist historian Francis Palacky is a good example of the "they" tendency. He was a nationalist. Francis Palacky, Mazzini, and Michelet all spoke of national mission and the superiority of one nation over the other. Palacky lauded the Czech people's adherents, which he characterized as a long struggle against brutal German denomination.
Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties in the late 1800s. (709)
1772-1837. French doctrinaire thinker who subjected all institutions to sweeping condemnation. Advocated "phalanstries" or small self-sufficient communes and a system of social and economic organization. None of those experiments that were tried in France succeeded. However, Brook Farms, on a similar principle, was run for about 5 years in America.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
The communist manifesto
written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also believed that history was a goal- driven process. A part of this process was the dialectic, which implied that all of history was an unfolding of events in a clear direction, or that all things happen for a reason. He believed that history takes place because of deep structural changes rather than by individuals or chance events, and that ideas precede and generate actualities.
Originated in the 2nd half of the 18th C in western Europe. A revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms. Validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience. New emphasis of emotions like trepidation, horror and terror and awe.
Writes Hunchback of Notre Dame, equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society. Starts out Conservative, renounces ways, opposite of Wordsworth. Also Lai Miserabs-Miserable Ones, France from Napoleanic Wars to 1848. Romantic author
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People
Ludwig van beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) was the first master of romantic music. He was one of the greatest composers in German history. He composed 9 symphonies, 5 piano concerts, a violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 2 Masses, and an opera. At the peak of his fame, in constant demand as a composer and recognized as the leading concert pianist his day, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. He considered suicide but eventually overcame despair. Among other achievements, he fully exploited for the first time the richness and beauty of the piano. Beethoven never heard much of his later work, including the unforgettable chorale finale to the Ninth Symphony, for the last years were silent, spent in total deafness. (p.771-772)
regulate foreign grain trade had long existed but weren't needed during a generation of war with France because the British had been unable to import cheap grain from eastern Europe-revision: prohibited importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels
Reform Bill of 1832
extended the vote to men who owned or rented property worth an annual rate of 10 pounds or more; excluded agricultural laborers and industrial workers; also eliminated some rotten boroughs
People Charter of 1838
British. Part of Chartism. Universal adult-male suffrage, secret ballot, abolition of property requirements for members of Parliament, payment to members of Parliament, equal electoral districts, annual parliaments with yearly elections.
Duke of Orleans was a collateral relative of the Bourbons and was suggested by the aging LaFayette as suitable replacement for Chas X. Established July Monarchy - became known as Citizen King - had amiable bourgeois image - stark contrast to Chas X. Would reign from 1830 - 48.
Frederick William of Prussia
Ruler of Prussia from 1840 to 1861 promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created. -His attempt to unite and rule Germany excluding Austria failed because of Austria's intervention into dividing Germany to being once again a German confederation.