Art in the Western World DSST/DANTES

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DANTES DSST flashcard review

What year did the Romans annexed Greece (when athens was sacked)?

86 B.C.

When did the ancient Greeks emerged to a rising and fuller culture?

1000 B.C.

The 2 bronze warriors that were pulled from sea from what Italian town and what year?

Riace 1972

What was Greek art about in regards to philosophical expression?

The ideal of manhood: pride, strength, resourcefulness, honest, and virtue

When was the Persian invasion fought off by the Greeks?

490 B.C.

Who led Greece around 479 B.C. and what city was the emerged as the dominate power?

Pericles Athens

What were the dates did the Greeks entered the Golden Age?

495-429 B.C.

Athens introduced democracy under what century?

6th B.C.

What were the dates did the Greeks achieve the high point of civilization where Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, laid ideas of Western philosophy, Herodtus establish history, discipline and chronicled the Persian Wars, Aeschylus and Sophocles refined Greek tragedy, and all cultivated an outlook on life that was humanistic, antiauthoritarian, questioning, and undogmatic?

480 to 323 B.C.

When did the Macedonians became rulers of Greece and at this time the classical phase ended?

338 B.C.

As the classical phase ended, the classical arts balance interest in what?

individual, natural, specific features with generalities, ideas, and norms

The two warriors from Riace were created about what year?

450 B.C.

Who commisioned the Warriors from Riace and for what?

Athenians dedicated it to the sanctuary at Delphi to commemorate their victory at Marathon.

The warriors may have been based on what Homeric heroes?

Agamemnon and Menelaus

What principles did the warriors from Riace reflect?

500 years of experimentation with human form that produce and demonstrate human perfection around 5th B.C.

What do scupltures represents?

deity, tomb mark, or serve as offering.

The greek themselves asked about what?

their origins, destiny, morality and government.

What did the Greeks learned from the Egyptians and what did they infuse in their art?

static art Greeks infused visual and emotional experience in their art.

What dates was the Parthenon built?

447 to 432 B.C.

It was erected on site of an earlier temple that was destroyed by who?

Persians

It was built from (blank) marble set on a (blank) base as it utilized parts of the old building in its construction.

Pentelic limestone

The Pathenon is rised from what (include definition)?

Acropolis (sacred outcropping dominating Athens)

Built as a temple and dedicated to who?

virgin goddess Athena Parthenos, daughter of Zeus and patron and protector of Athens

Parthenon building was no accident but result of refinement in temple building in Greece, 1st made of (blank) and built in stone, with (blank) construction technique of earlier wooden structures. Its height, width, columns, mass, open space, and relation to its surroundings express a sense of order and peace.

mud and wood post-and-lintel

The (blank), (blank)(the space between 2 blocks with vertical groves in the (blank) of a (blank) order), and central lock carried sculpture (painted in colors).

pediments metopes frieze Doric

(blank) statue (by (blank)), now lost, was principal statue of Partheneon. May have been over (blank)ft high with gold and ivory embellished goddess standing in her sanctuary.

Athena Phidias 30

Temple of Hera II was built in what yea and where?

460 B.C. Paestum, Italy

What is the style and what compressed by weight of the structure?

fluted column, pediment, roof, and carved architectural embellishment Large columns thicken in center

what is entasis derived from?

actual bowing of wooden columns of earlier Greek temples

In athens sculpture metopes depict battle between centaurs and Lapiths. Who were the Lapiths?

tribe of peace loving men

How were the centuars and Lapith's seen as?

Lapith's were triumph in bloody conflict as victory of civilization over barbarity.

Who did the centaurs represent for the Athenians?

Persians

Battle of the Lapiths and centaurs, metope from the Parthenon was made about what year?

440 B.C.

(blank) depiciting each a battle scene. Violent struggle becomes a dance as figure float across surface of (blank). Clash between (blank) and form become a balance and harmony term classic.

92 relief realism geometric

Three Goddesses, from the Parthenon, was made about what year and who were they based on?

435 B.C. Leto, Artemis, and Aphrodite,

Girl with Doves was made in what year and what did it the dove symbolized?

450 BC. love and constancy

Girl with Doves invoke the word stele. What does it mean from Greek?

"standing block" or "gravestone"

Girl with Doves was depicted as? What was the meaning of this depiction?

A young girl bidding farewell to her doves. Tender and sad as it expresses spirit and charm of a long-departed child.

In what ways was Greek pottery made?

Exploited material-iron-rich clay yielded an intense orange-red and deep black when fried.

Dionysys Cup was made when and signed by who?

550-525 B.C. Exekias

The Dionysys Cup is a footed (blank) with (blank) handles and wide (blank) suitable for (blank) (blank).

vessel 2 bowl aerating wine

The Dionysus Cup tells a story about what?

Dionysus was capture by pirates on his ship. He terrified them by flooding his ship with wine, causing a great vine to sprout from the mast and creating illusions of wild beasts. Pirates leapt from the ship into sea, transforming into dolphins.

It's painted how (Define the description of style)?

Black-figure style: black figure on reddish orange clay ground.

What color were womens faces if painted?

white.

The style replaced by red figures set against black ground, which gives artists a chance to paint faces, bodies, and drapery with brush instead of incising happen about what year?

500 B.C.

The result is less décor but displays more complex images. It shows (blank).

composition and narration.

Euphronios was made about when and by who?

515 B.C. Krater

What was it about and theme?

Body of fallen warrior, Sarpedon, son of Zeus, is carried off from battle field by Sleep and death (twins) under Hermes supervison. Tragedy

What was the vase used for?

mixing wine and water.

What is the specific action of this scene?

Somber action is giving weight and bending winged figures who struggle to lift him.

According to Greek myth about the 1st sculptor, (blank) of (blank) fashioned a cow to disguise the wife of King Minos so a bull would copulate with her and bore the Minotaur.

Daedalus Crete

Kouros (blank) This life size figure of a (blank) (blank) reflects an increased knowledge of anatomy, gained from watching athletes and warriors they practiced. These were placed on pedestals outside temples as offereings or memorials on a gravesites (represented (blank)), slain by wild Ares in the front rank of battle."

540 B.C. male youth kroisos

The kouros was modeled after what other culture that made sculptures?

Egyptian sculptures

What was the Kouros convention and based on?

one foot placed before the other, arms at sides facing forward. Received knowledge rather than visual analysis.

Did women play a prominent role in ancient Greek society?

No

Peplos Kore (blank) Depicitng a (blank) or a member of a (blank), kore shows Eastern tradition through her dress. This indicates statue's origins among sculptors of eastern Greek center of (blank).

530 B.C. priestess religious cult Ionia

Peplos Kore has traces of (blank) that embellished her hair and dress, adding (blank) as well as life-like.

paint decorative

Where was the Peplos Kore found buried in?

Acropolis

About what year did the Greek sculptors experimented with bronze casting to produce large-scale figures.

530 B.C.

Kritios Boy (blank) Found on (blank). Sculptor (blank) created a figure that abandonded almost entirely the (blank) figure.

480 B.C. Acroplois Kritios Kourous

The major differneces between the Kritios and Kouros scuplutres are what?

Introduce anatomical realism, Freed of static code, Face shows reflex, body responds as a real body would to an extended leg

The Kritios Boy was the 1st beautiful nude in art that started what?

Greek classical age in sculpture

This change altered (blank) of Kouros and gave (blank) sculpture potential for fluidity and grace, which unifies into our own realm of experience.

symmetry figurative

About what year was the Roman copy of the Doryphrous of Polyclitus made?

440 B.C.

In the Roman copy of the Doryphrous of Polyclitus where Polyclitus was constructing his ideal man, he was probably inspired by (blank). He wrote a book on measurement and proportion, established thicker and more compact proportion for the ideal male than Riace warriors or equally famous others.

Pythagorean theories of mathematics

When was the Zeus (or Poseidon) sculputre made?

470 - 450 B.C.

Where was Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture found?

Artemision coast.

What was Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture about?

hurling his (lost) spear (or Poseidon throwing triton)

How is the Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture portrayed?

Left arm streched out to balance backward motion of spear throwing. Looks at direction of his aim. Leg extended in preparation for the forward thrust needed to propel his weapon.

What theories are presented on the Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture?

human proportions based on universal principles of mathematics, human anatomy and ideal proportions,

What does Zeus (or Poseidon) sculpture present to the viewer?

Express confidence in his aim and throwing distance.

The god, be he Zeus or Poseidon, stands as an quintessential (blank). Man and god become alike.

human athelete

Athletes generally known only to be virtue of actions, such as Discobolus (blank), were vigoroulsy competing spirit.

disc thrower

Between what dates did Sparta supplanted (took over) Athens during Peloponnesian War, but were not capable in leading Greece falling into corruption?

431 and 404 BC

The Greek polies absorb into what empire?

Macedonian

Imperial age began with Philip II of Macedonia and son Alexander the Great in what year?

338 B.C.

Alexander rule united Greek (blank) and expanded (blank) empire.

poleis Hellenistic

What dates were the Hellenistic period?

323-150 B.C.

Give the following dates in the blanks. Greek fell to Rome due to political decline (blank) Syracuse sacked, (blank) Corinth and Cartage fell, (blank) Athens lost to Roman General Sulla.

212 B.C. 146 B.C. 86 B.C.

(blank) (sculptor of Hellenistic era) nickednamed "the Madman" for always smashing his works from frustration.

Apollodorus

When did the classical era end?

340 B.C.

About what year was Nike of Samothrace made and where was it found?

198 B.C. Samothrace

Why was the Nike of Samothrace made and what era did it belong to?

victory of Rhodians at sea over Antiochus III of Syria Hellenistic

How is Nike of Samothrace portrayed?

Wings spread, wind-swept, turing, moment when she landed with the cloth, still tugged by the breeze formed around her

What are the senses that are attributed in the Nike of Samothrace?

flesh, feathers, voluminous chition, sound of wings, flutter of robe.

When was the Laocoon Group made?

150 B.C.

What was the Laocoon Group about?

A Trojan priest who warned fellow Trojans not to bring the wooden horse into Troy. The gods sent 2 huge snakes who swam ashore and slowly entwined and killed Laocoon and his 2 sons so to thwart his actions.

What artist and era did the Laocoon Group generally influenced?

Michelangelo Renaissance

How is the Laocoon Group portrayed?

complex twist and turns of snakes intertwined with figures in violent physical exertion

When was Head of a Beber made?

350 B.C.

Where was Head of a Beber found?

Temple of Apollo at Cyrene

What is this an example of?

Portraiture

When did Alexzander the great died?

323 B.C.

When did Greek colonies flourished in the peninsula extended into Mediterranean Sea (south of Rome) then became part of Roman empire?

146 B.C.

Around what century was Rome the largest city in Italy (the ancient latin people ruled by Etruscan kings) ?

6th B.C.

Around what time did they overthrew the tyrant, who was the Etruscan tyrant, and what did they established?

509 B.C. Tarquin republic

When did Rome's republican period ended?

27 B.C.

What was the 1st Roman monument to extol Roman imperialism?

Ara Pacis

Whose workmanship did the Ara Pacis it grace?

Greeks

Who was the emporer that was in power when the Ara Pacis was built?

Augustus

People depicted solemnly stepping along the shallow (blank) of this altar wall were celebrants in actual procession that consecrated the ground on which the altar would stand on.

frieze

This took place on July 14 (blank) including (blank) , 1st Roman emperor, and his family.

13 B.C. Caesar Augustus

Built on edge of (blank) in Rome, altar dedicated to (blank) brought by Augustus's rule.

Field of War peace

(blank) remind Romans of virtue and efficacy.

Reliefs

Greeks studied man and his relation to the world, the Romans studied how to (blank) the world and how to run it (blank).

organize smoothly and efficiently

When did the Etruscans, whose territory once extended throughout central Italy, were at height of power and challenged Romans for power in Italy?

c.500 B.C.

(blank) were gifted metal smiths (Chimera of Arretium 5th to 4th B.C, exported throughout Mediterranean world).

Etruscans

(blank) , or (blank) (59 B.C. - A.D. 17) one of ancient Rome's influential historians provided factual account of Rome's early history even as he relied much of her mythology.

Titus Linius Lviy

(blank) (70 - 19 B.C) a poet did Aeneid (celebration of destiny in Rome). (blank) (43 B.C. to A.D. 18) poet did Metamorphoses (influence on Western imagery)

Virgil Ovid Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger

About when were art treasure and artists from Tarentum, Syracuse, Corinth, and Pergamum were uprooted and transported to Rome?

272 and 133 B.C

About when did collecting became fashionable around time of Corinth's fall according to Pliny the Elder?

146. BC

About when was the Pont Du Gard built?

Late 1st B.C

The Pont Du Gard top level of this (blank) supported the conduit carrying water from Uzes to Nimes, France, a distance covering 13 miles.

triple-arched aqueduct

The Pont Du Gard Huge structure with its triple rows of (blank) carried on massive (blank) (uppermost rising 180 ft above valley floor), dominates surrounding countryside.

arches piers

When was the Baths of Caracalla built?

210 A.D.

the Baths of Caracalla had great (blank) were made of (blank) and (blank) and covered with (blank) and expensive (blank).

vaulted baths stone concrete terra-cotta marble

It had hot and cold baths, dressing rooms, furnace rooms, restaurants, libraries, and other chambers.

Why was the Baths of Caracalla one of Rome's major social centers?

When was the Coliseum in Rome built?

70-82 A.D.

Who said While the Coliseum stands, Rome shall stand; When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall, and when Rome falls the world.

Venerable Bede

Coliseum in Rome was a gigantic building, held about 50,000 people, often rowdy crowds, steeply (blank) seats offering an unobstructed viewing, large openings for entry and exit and easy access to seats.

terraced

Coliseum in Rome had a (blank) system equipped where the floor that could be flooded for sea battles; a huge cloth (blank), rigged by sailors stationed near the Coliseum for this purpose, as often extended to shade the seats.

tarpaulin hydraulic

In Coliseum in Rome where was the maze of rooms for athletes, animals and personnel who needed to shade sets?

Below ground level

When was the Maison Carree built and where is it located?

20 B.C Nimes, France

What were the temples, such as the Maison Carree, based on?

Greek prototype temples

The temples, such as the Maison Carrer were made Roman by high (blank), engaged (blank) set into the (blank) wall, and deep (blank).

base columns sanctuary porch

What dates was the Pantheon built?

118-125 A.D.

Although the Pantheon retains elements of (blank), it is a (blank) Roman temple type.

Greek temple circular

In later times, the Pantheon was a burial place for who?

Raphael

Who was the emperor that rebuilt the Pantheon and its dedication to?

Emperor Hadrian 7 planetary deities

The Pantheon is huge in size (its height, 142 feet equal diameter of its (blanK))

dome

The Pantheon's dome opens to the sky by an (blank)

oculus

In the Pantheon everything else is original except a giant (blank) with (blank) and (blank) as tribute to a Greek rectangular temple tradition.

porch columns pediments

Outside of Pantheon shows plain (blank) of its exterior display volume of space.

brick drums

(blank) was important to the Romans because of their strong sense of history and of their unique and important place in it. Immortality was often achieved by military deeds; prowess and victory in war frequently led to fame, wealth, and power.

Grandeur

When was Arch of Titus built?

AD 81

The story behind the Arch of Titus was?

Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian, captured and destroyed Jerusalem in AD 70.

In the (blank) from Arch of Titus: The Triumph of the Emperor Titus his victory made manifest by the figure of Rome, who leads the chariot, while a figure of Victory bestows the crown.

relief

(blank) recounts the deeds of victorious both in words and images. It was probably erected shortly after emperor's death.

Triumphal arches

The Arch of Titus was broad and weighty in appearance, its (blank), (blank) and (blank) bespeak gravity, sobriety and power, all valued Roman ideas.

piers arch attic

2 (blank) shows 1 of Titus in a triumphal car drawn by 4 horses and other of treasure taken from temple when Jerusalem was captured by Titus & Vespasian in AD. 70.

reliefs

(blank) prototype may have been temp (blank) that troops passed through as they enter Roman cities.

Triumphal arch arches

(blank) crowned with life size metal (blank) (victor riding chariot drawn by horses). The carved (blank) were placed on front and back of (blank), commemorative inscriptions (sometimes (blank) letters) on them as well. They were meant to attract attention to themselves and onlookers of greatness in Roman civilization.

Arches statue panels bronze arches

When was the Column of Trajan built?

113 A.D.

What did Column of Trajan commemorate?

Trajan's campaigns in Dacia

Originally the Column of Trajan (blank) were enlivened by (blank) and (blank), and the column was topped by a (blank) of emperor.

reliefs paint gilding statue

When was the Tomb of M. Vergiulus Euryasces and his wife built?

1st B.C.

Tomb of M. Vergiulus Euryasces and his wife was a wealthy (blank)to Roman state and armies and wished to be remembered by building his tomb in shape of an (blank).

baker oven.

In Tomb of M. Vergiulus Euryasces and his wife a (blank) depicting the making and selling of bread runs across the top of structure.

frieze

When was the arising from funerary customs, Roman portraits were intended to preserve exact likeness of the deceased?

3rd B.C.

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