Ms Ruehle

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35 terms · Plants, bacteria and virus

Gymnosperm

The greek word for "naked seed"

more Carbon-dioxide and more sunlight

Two advantages plants had when they adapted to life on land.

fruit

A thickened ovary that holds seeds is called a (an)

reproduce

Viruses can not ___ on their own

vaccination

A ____ is a weakened or non-functioning virus that is used to stimulate the immune system into making antibodies.

aid in digestion, act as decomposers, clean oil spills, treat sewage

Ways in which bacteria help humans

Chemosynthesis

___ is the process by which bacteria use energy of chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide, to make food.

colonies

Bacteria can form groups called ___ where they can be seen with the naked eye.

endospore

Bacterium can form an ____ when conditions are adverse. During this time the bacteria is dormant or in a resting stage.

parasites

___ live on or in a host and cause harm.

pasteurization

The process of heating food to high temperatures to kill off bacteria is called _____.

prevent food spoilage

Pasteurization, refrigeration, freezing, canning, salting, smoking and cooking food are all ways to _________ by bacteria.

Prokaryotic

Animal cells are eukaryotic while bacteria cells are ______.

nucleus

Prokaryotic cells have no ____.

bacteriophage

A virus that attacks a bacterial cell.

binary fission

Bacteria reproduce by ___, one cell splitting into two.

plants

The first ___ appeared 475 million years ago.

moss and ferns

Some of the earliest plants were ___.

spore

A single reproductive cell that is protected by a hard watertight covering.

seed

A __ is a young plant that is enclosed in a protective coating.

germination

When conditions are right ___will occur, which is the beginning of growth of a new plant from a spore or seed.

pollen

The small structure that holds the sperm cells for plants.

pollination

___ occurs when a pollen grain reaches the part of the plant containing the female egg and releases the sperm.

fruit

Once the eggs are fertilized and the seeds form, the ovary wall will thicken and the ovary becomes the ____.

xylem

The __ carries water and nutrients for a plant.

phloem

The ___ carries sugars the plant uses for food.

mesophyll

The middle of the leaf, where the "magic happens" or photosynthesis occurs.

stomata

Tiny openings that exchange gases and water vapor located on the bottom of the leaf.

vascular bundle

The ___ packages the xylem and the phloem together, it's the "highway" of the plant.

cuticle

The waxy outer covering of the leaf that helps keep water in the plant leaf.

epidermic

The layer that helps protect the leaf and is where gas exchange occurs because it has the tiny openings.

producer

An organism that can make its own food.

decomposers

Organisms that break down dead organisms into simpler substances are called___.

host

An organism that a parasite lives in or on is called a ___.

viral reproduction

Attachment, injection, production, assembly and release are the 5 steps of ___.

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