Ch 25 Vocab

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Protists

Single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally don't fit on any other kingdom.

Binary Fission

Asexual reproduction in which a single protist cell divides into two cells.

Multiple Fission

A form of cell division that produces more than two offspring.

Conjugation

Sexual reproduction in which two individuals join and exchange genetic material stored in a small second nucleus.

Pseudopodium

Large, rounded cytoplasmic extensions that function both in movement and feeding.

pellicle

A clear, elastic layer of protein that surrounds the cell membrane in Ciliates.

Gullet

An organelle found in Ciliates that forms food vacuoles that move throughout the cytoplasm.

Macronucleus

A type of nuclei found in Ciliates that contains multiple copies of DNA that direct the cell's metabolism and development.

Ameoboid Movement

A type of cytoplasmic streaming that allows an ameoba to move using pseudopodium.

Oral Groove

Pellicle's funnel-like depression in Ciliates.

Anal Pore

Contracts and expels undigested materials in Ciliates.

Micronucleus

A type of nuclei that participates in the exchange of genetic material during conjugation in Ciliates.

Test

A Shell.

Mouth Pore

An organelle found in Ciliates that collects food from thye oral groove and opens into a gullet.

Contractile Vacuole

Saclike organelles found in Ciliates that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell.

Flagellum

Long, whiplike structures that are made up of microtubles and are used for movement.

Cilium

Short, hairlike cytoplasmic projections that line the cell membrane.

Alga

Autotrophic protists.

Gametangium

Single-celled gamete chambers that form gametes in algae.

Phytoplankton

Free-living aquatic organisms that make up most unicellular algae.

Thallus

The plantlike body portion of seaweed.

Accessory Pigments

Carotenoids that capture light energy and transfer it to chlorophyll A.

Diatom

Unicellular protists that are found in the phylum Bacillariophyta. They have cell walls consisting of two pieces that fit together like a lid and a box.

Shell

A cell wall.

Bioluminescence

Production of light by means of a chemical reaction in an organism

Red Tide

When populations of Dinoflagellates explode, they turn the water brownish red. The water becomes filled with toxins that kill numerous fish. The toxins are dangerous to humans who eat the fish.

Euglenoid

Uncellular algae that are both plantlike and animal-like. Most are autotrophic, but lack a cell wall and are highly motile, like animals.

Fruiting Body

Funguslike, spore-bearing structure used by funguslike protists during reproduction.

Water Mold

A funguslike protist composed of branching filaments of cells.

Plasmodial Slime Mold

Mass of cytoplasm that contains many diploid nuclei that are not seperated by cell walls. As it creeps along the forest floow, it consumes decaying leaves and other debris via phagocytosis.

Cellular Slime Mold

Individual haploid cells that move about like amoebas. The individual cells come together and act as one unit when water or food becomes scarce.

Algal Bloom

A vast increase in the concentration of diatoms and other photosynthetic protists.

Chemotaxis

A process used by Dictyostelium cells that allows them to recognize AMP and crawl toward it.

Alginate

A commercially important polysaccharide that comes from alginic acid. It is used in cosmetics and various drugs and it is used as a stabilizer in ice cram and salad dressings.

Carrageenan

A sticky substance that lines the cell walls of certain species of red algae. It is a polysaccharide that is used to conrol the texture of many commercial and food products.

Agar

A polysaccharide that comes from the cell walls of red algae. It is used in scientific research for culturing microbes like bacteria. It is also used in the food industry.

Diatomaceous Earth

A layer of diatom shells in large numbers at the bottom of lakes and oceans. This material is a component of many commercial products, such as detergents, paint removers, and toothpaste.

Malaria

A tropical disease caused by a protozoan and transmitted to humans by mosquito. Itis characterized by severe chills, headache, fever, and fatigue.

Sporozoite

Plasmodium cells that enter the bloodstream and infect the liver.

Merozoite

New cells created by sporozoites that emerge from the liver and infect red blood cells.

Gametocyte

Sexual forms of the malaria parasite. When a mosquito injests it, it forms gametes, which combine to form zygotes that develop into more sporozoites. This starts the lifecycyle of the parasite all over again.

Giardiasis

An illness caused by Giardia lamblia. It is characterized by diarrhea and intestinal cramps. It is transferred through the consumption of contaminated water.

Cryptosporidiosis

An iIlness casued by Cryptosporidium parvum. It is spread through contact with contaminated fecel matter.

Trichomoniasis

An STD caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Symtoms include discolored discharge, genitial itching, and an urge to urinate.

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