French monarch who, after winning the crown in the War of the Three Henrys, attempted to reconcile French Catholics and Protestants with the Edict of Nantes.
Marie de Medici
Ruled as Louis XIII's regent and appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the Council of Ministers.
French cardinal who whose Louis XIII's chief minister; his policies defined French absolutism.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV's decree that gave French Calvinists (Huguenots) the right to worship in 150 cities and ended the French Wars of Religion.
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
French statesmen handpicked by Richelieu to be his successor.
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's and Mazarin's authority; they were unable to overthrow Mazarin.
French king who made France a dominant power in Europe; he engaged in constant warfare and bankrupted the economy.
Louis XIV's financial minister who centralized the French economy by instituting a strict policy of mercantilism.
The economic theory based on the idea that the world's wealth and resources are finite and that state intervention is needed to secure the largest part of these resources.
French explorer who sailed from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River and claimed the western United States for France.
French Jesuit explorer who played a prominent part in the attempt to Christianize the American Indians.
The art and literature of the age of Louis XIV; its subject matter was predominantly classical antiquity and the glorification of Louis XIV.
French painter regarded as the chief representative of French classicism.
French classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.
French classicist playwright who wrote tragic dramas based on Greek and Roman legend that analyzed the power of love.
French statesman who operated under Louis XIV and influenced him to revoke the Edict of Nantes.
The Spanish-controlled territory invaded by Louis XIV during his wars of expansion.
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
French minister of finance who succeeded Colbert; he was forced to resort to the devaluation of currency, tax exemptions, and the sale of titles in order to pay for Louis XIV's wars.
War of the Spanish Succession
The war that resulted from the heirless death of Charles II; in order to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns, the Grand Alliance declared war on France and the French.
Treaty of Utrecht
The treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession and forbade the combination of crowns.
Spanish administrator who devised many new sources of revenue, for Spain, but resisted reform and clung to the ideas of imperialism.
Treaty of the Pyrenees
The treaty that ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years' War; the treaty marked the end of Spain's status as a major European power.
Spanish novelist who wrote "Don Quixote," one of the great masterpieces of world literature which satirized 16th-century Spanish society and values.
The limitation of government by laws.
English king who succeeded Elizabeth I; he was a strong proponent of the theory of divine right expressed in his essay "The True Law of Free Monarchies."
A English Protestant religious sect who sought to "purify" the Church of England by simplification.
House of Commons
The lower house of the English Parliament and during the reigns of the Stuart monarchs, it gained more power of over finances.
English king who succeeded James I; the English Civil War occurred during his reign; he was beheaded after being defeated.
English Parliament that sat from 1640 to 1660 and enacted legislation that limited the power of the monarch including the Triennial Act, which required Parliament to meet every three years.
English Civil War
The war between Charles I (Cavaliers) and his Parliamentary opponents (Roundheads); the Parliamentary forces won and Charles I was beheaded.
English philosopher who wrote "Leviathan," which maintained that sovereignty is derived from the people.
The republican government in Britain that was established after the English Civil War.
English general and statesman who ruled England as a military dictator after the English Civil War.
The reestablishment of Charles II as King of England; simultaneously both houses of Parliament, the Anglican Church, and the English courts were restored.
An act passed under Charles II that barred Catholics from voting, holding public office, or serving as military officials.
The restored monarch who allowed Parliament's power to increase greatly by convening them frequently and granting them considerable autonomy.
English king who succeeded Charles II; he was an unpopular Catholic who antagonized Parliament and was forced to flee England by the Glorious Revolution.
The overthrow of James II and accession of William and Mary by the English Parliament.
English philosopher who defended the Glorious Revolution by maintaining that civil governments must protect their citizens' right to life, liberty, and property.
Bill of Rights
Act of Parliament that guaranteed the power of Parliament to raise armies, hold free elections, and declare laws illegal; the people were also guaranteed freedom of speech, right to petition, and other basic civil liberties.
English royal minister who presided over the cabinet for George I and George II; he developed the idea that the cabinet was subservient to the House of Commons.
English Hanover king who popularized the cabinet system of government and was unpopular in England for his inability to speak to English.
English Hanover king who appointed Robert Walpole as the first British prime minister.
Ruled as a regent during the beginning of Louis XIV's reign.
Years of Louis XIV reign. The peak of absolutism is France.
The years of the English civil war ending with the execution of Charles I.
Trew Laws of Free Monarchy
Essay written by James I. Expresses his ideas about divine right. According to it, a monarch has a divine right to his authority and is responsible only to God. Places rebellion as the worst of political crimes because it defies God.
Declaration of Indulgence
Ended religious tests for being an office holder and allowed the freedom of worship.
The European nation that was the most tolerant of religions in the 17th Century.
(Rembrandt) Van Rijn
Dutch baroque painter who painted The Night Watch.