Histology of the Skin

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Dermatology

the study of the skin and its nature, structure, functions, diseases and treatment

Esthetician

a specialist in the cleansing, preservation of health, and beautification of the skin and body

Healthy skin is

slightly acid

The skin is thinnest on

the eyelids

The palms and soles is where the skin is

the thickest

Epidermis

the outer protective layer of the skin

The epidermis does not contain

any blood vessels

Stratum corneum has scale-like cells made up of

keratin

Stratum corneum

the layer of the epidermis that is continually being shed and replaced

The stratum corneum is also known as

the horny layer

Stratum germinativum

where the growth of the epidermis begins

Melanin, which protects sensitive cells from the destructive effects of excessive UV rays, is found in

the stratum germinativum

Nerves, hair follicles, papillae, and sweat and oil glands are found in

the dermis, the underlying or inner layer of the skin

The reticular and papillary layers are also found in

the true skin (the dermis)

The small cone-shaped elevations at the bottom of the hair follicles

are papillae

The reticular layer

the layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen

Subcutaneous tissue

is a fatty tissue

The skin is nourished by

blood and lymph

Sensory nerve fibers in the skin

react to cold

The motor nerve fibers of the skin

cause goose bumps

The skin gets its strength, form and flexibility from

collagen and elastin

A protein fiber that helps the skin regain its shape, even after being repeatedly stretched, is

elastin

The sudoriferous glands regulate

body temperature

Sebaceous glands are found on all parts of the body except

the palms and soles

Sweat pores

the small opening of the sweat glands on the skin

The excretion of sweat from the skin is under the control of

the nervous system

The palms, soles, forehead, and armpits contain particularly numerous

sudoriferous glands

The sebaceous glands

secrete oil

The duct of the sebaceous gland opens into the

hair follicle

The function of sebum is to lubricate

the skin

The blood and sweat glands of the skin regulate body heat by maintaining a Fahrenheit temperature of about

98 degrees

Approximately ___________ of the skin's aging is caused by the sun's rays

80 to 85 percent

Skin tissues wrinkle and sag because of the weakening of

the collagen and elastin fibers

The ultrviolet rays of the sun that are also called the "aging rays" are the

UVA rays

The "burning rays" that can damage the skin and eyes are

UVB rays

Ultraviolet exposure is highest between the hours of

10 A.M. and 3 P.M.

UVB rays cause tanning of the skin by affecting

the melanocytes

Nicotine in tobacco causes contraction and weakening of the

blood vessels

An excessive intake of alcohol

overdilates blood vessels

If a client has an inflamed skin disorder that is not infectious, you should

refer the client to a physician

A papule is

a primary lesion of the skin

Pus is most likely to be found

in pustules

Poison oak and poison ivy produce

vesicles

Fissures

the skin lesions found in chapped lips and hands

Cyst

a closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, semi fluid and morbid matter

Cicatrix

after an injury, this might develop

Tumor

an abnormal mass

Before a wound or blemish has healed completely, it is likely to be

covered with a crust

Dandruff

an example of scale

Comedone

technical term for blackhead

Milia

the technical name for whiteheads

Disorders of the sebaceous glands do not include

miliaria rubra

Acne, or common pimples, is also known as

acne simplex or acne vulgaris

Rosacea

a chronic congestion on the cheeks and nose characterized by dilation of blood vessels

One of the symptoms of asteatosis

dry skin

In seborrhea, the appearance of the the skin is

oily and shiny

Steatomas usually appear

on the scalp

Bromhidrosis means

foul-smelling perspiration

Hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating

Miliaria rubra

people exposed to excessive heat may develop this condition

Eczema

an inflammation of the skin characterized by dry or moist lesions

Psoriasis

indicated by red patches covered with silver-white scales

Herpes simplex

a recurring viral infection

Dermatitis venenata

certain chemical found in cosmetics may cause this

Freckles

the common term for lentigines

Albinism is characterized by

an absence of melanin

Liver spots are technically known as

chloasma

Leukoderma

the skin disorder that is further classified as vitiligo and albinism

Stain

an abnormal skin discoloration that occurs during aging or after certain diseases

Nevus

a birthmark

Continued pressure or friction on the hands and feet may result in the formation of

a keratoma

Skin tag

hypertrophy that occurs most often on the neck of an older person

Verruca

a hypertrophy that is caused by a virus and is infectious

Basal cell carcinoma

the most common and least severe type of skin cancer

Malignant melanoma

a skin cancer characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may be uneven in texture, jagged, or raised

Squamous cell carcinoma

a skin cancer characterized by scaly red papules or nodules

Vitamin C

the vitamin that promotes the production of collagen in the skin

Vitamin A

Retinoic acid or Retin-A is the topical form of this vitamin

Vitamin E

When used with vitamin A, this vitamin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun's rays

Water composes ___________ percent of the body's weight

50 to 70

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