Cities and Urban Land Use

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Vocabulary for Unit 7 of AP Human Geography. Vocab comes from de Blij's "Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture" and from The College Board

Suburb

a mostly residential part of an urban area that is usually adjacent to the central city

Suburbinization

process in which areas not a part of the urban area become urbanized as people and business move into these areas

Symbolic Landscape

the appearance of a city represents that city's history

Tear downs

houses that are bought with the intention of tearing them down to replace them with a larger house

Tenement

a run-down apartment of low quality that barely meets minimum standards of living

Threshold

the amount of people needed for a business to run

Underemployment

when a worker is employed, but not employed to their desired standard

Urban

describes a city and its suburban area; relating to a city

Urban Growth Rate

rate of growth of an urban population

Urban Hearth Area

area where cities first began to emerge

Urban Hierarchy

a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic function

Urban Morphology

the layout of a city; its physical form and structure

Urban Realm

describes areas of a metropolis that are economically, socially, and politically independent from the central city

Urban Renewal

reconstruction of worn-down, impoverished areas to improve those areas

Urban Sprawl

fast, unplanned growth of housing and commercial development over large expanses of land

Urbanization

the process of taking on characteristics of a city

Urbanized Population

the proportion of a country's population living in cities

World City

cities that function at a global scale; they are service centers in the world economy

Zone-in-Transition

an area of a city with mixed land use for houses and businesses

Zoning

dividing a city into sections with different functions

Zoning Laws

the government plans the use of space in ways that would seem culturally/environmentally acceptable

Indus Valley

2200 BC; the third urban hearth, located near Indus River

Mesoamerica

200 BC; fifth urban hearth, located in present-day Central America

Mesopotamia

3500 BC; first urban hearth, located in the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

Nile River Valley

32200 BC; second urban hearth, located in Egypt around the Nile River

Huang He and Wei River Valleys

1500 BC; fourth urban hearth, located in present-day China

Agglomeration

clustering of people or businesses for mutual benefits of close proximity; they can share labor pools, technological and financial services, etc.

Annexation

incorporation of something by joining, accepting, or uniting.

Barriadas

squatter settlements (shantytowns) that surround Lima, Peru and local urban centers.

Basic sector

activities and services that generate income for a city (ex. manufacturing, retail, etc.).

Non-Basic sector

work responsible for the functioning of the city itself (ex. government, street cleaning, utilities people, etc.)

Bid-rent theory

the theory that as one moves farther away from the CBD (Central Business District or major city), the price and demand of land decreases; land is pricier and most wanted closer to the city.

Blockbusting

the process of white families selling their homes because of fears that black families would move in, lowering property values (popular during 1950s; led to migration from cities to created suburbs)

Census tract

a division of land for the purpose of taking the census (a collection of statistical data, including population, ages, etc.); every census tract has a standard number of people to keep them even.

Central Business District

location of skyscrapers and companies; center of trade, social services, economics, and major transportation types.

Central city

urban area that in NOT suburban; normally the older or original city surrounded by the new suburbs.

Central Place Theory

created by Walter Christaller, it seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in an urban system; settlements simply function as 'central places,' providing services to surrounding areas. CPT is shown through organized hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping market areas.

Centrality

the state of being and remaining in the center of a specific area.

Mackinder's Heartland Theory

created by Halford Mackinder, the Heartland Theory suggests that the control of Eastern Europe was vital to the controlling of the world.
Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland.
Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island.
Who rules the World-Island commands the world.

City

clustered conglomeration of people and buildings together serving as a center of politics, culture, and economics.

Cityscape

the specific view of a city or the characteristic appearance of a city.

Colonial city

city established by colonizing empires as administrative centers; they were often established on already existing native cities, completely taking over their infrastructures.

Commercialization of the CBD

the process of focusing the CBD's purpose on business more than any other service of the CBD.

Commuter zone

area outside the CBD where people live but are still drawn to work in the CBD and are willing to commute (usually the suburbs)

Conurbation

an urban area or agglomeration comprising a number of cities, large towns and larger urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area.

Conurbanization

synonym for megalopolis; large uniting supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world.

Counter-urbanization

a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas.

Decentralization

the tendency of people or businesses and industry to move to a location outside the central city.

Deindustrialization

process of social and economic changes in a city caused by the removal of major industry.

Disamenity sector

the very poorest parts of a city that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.

Early cities

cities of the ancient world—mostly based on agriculture and subsistence farming; basically the urban hearths of the world (i.e. Mesoamerica, Indus River Valley).

Economic base

the manufacturing and service activities performed by the basic sector (producers of city income); functions of a city performed to satisfy external demands, earning income to support the urban population.

Edge city

the shifting focus of urbanization away from the CBD towards new buds of economic activity at the urban fringe creating small towns/cities outside the CBD (usually starts as suburbs and urbanize).

Entrepôt

a trading center where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying for import duties (often as a profit).

Ethnic neighborhood

a neighborhood, typically located in a large metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs (i.e. Chinatown, Little Italy)

Favelas

squatter settlements (shantytowns) located in and around Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

First Urban Revolution

the innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths (Mesoamerica, Nile Valley, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Huang Ho).

Gated communities

restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests; they have become a middle-class phenomenon in North America, though predominantly high-income based.

Gateway city

a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation; they can also connect two cities, towns, etc.

Gentrification

trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture and also replacing the low-income population (negative view of rebuilding a neighborhood).

Ghetto

a term used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.

Globalization

actions/processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

Griffin-Ford Model

a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that shape the urban scene.

High-tech corridors

areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development and sale of high-technology products.

Concentric Zone Model

created by Ernest Burgess in the 1920s, the Concentric Zone Model was the first of many to document the outline of a city, using rings.
1) CBD
2) Zone of Transition
3) Blue Collar Workers
4) Middle-Class
5) Outer Suburban Ring

McGee model

Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia.

McMansions

Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American Suburbs.

Megalopolis

Terms used to designate large coalescing super cities that are forming in diverse parts of the world.

New Urbanism

Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walk able neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.

Shantytown

Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.

Social Stratification

One of the two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige.

Spaces of consumption

Areas of the city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry.

Primate city

The largest most economically influential within the state with the next largest city in the state being much smaller and much less influential.

Redlining

In the 1960's, before the Civil Rights movement, businesses would identify an area to be "risky" in cities and refuse to offer loans to those in the districts (marked by red lines on a map)(now illegal). Worked against those living in poorer neighborhoods and helped to participate in keeping poorer neighborhoods rundown.

Rank-size rule

In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.

Sprawl (urban)

Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.

Multiple nuclei model

A model that recognizes that the CBD is losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area.

Informal sector

The informal sector is broadly characterized as consisting of units engaged in the production of goods or services with the primary objective of generating employment and incomes to the persons concerned. These units typically operate at a low level of organization, with little or no division between labor and capital as factors of production and on a small scale. Labor relations - where they exist - are based mostly on casual employment, kinship or personal and social relations rather than contractual arrangements with formal guarantees.

Infrastructure

the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.

Inner city

an older part of a city, densely populated and usually deteriorating, inhabited mainly by poor, often minority, groups.

Mega cities/city

A city having a population of one million or more.

Multiplier effect

An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.

Office park

a commercial complex consisting of an office building set in park-like surroundings, often with such facilities as parking lots, restaurants, and recreational areas.

Planned communities

A residential district that is planned for a certain class of residents.

Post modern urban landscapes

The material character of a postmodern urban area

Post industrial city

A city exhibiting the characteristics of a postindustrial society

Restrictive covenants

a statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of land in some way.

Segregation

the separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences.

Metropolitan/statistical area

an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.

Slums

A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor.

Squatter Settlement

A squatter settlement (also called a shanty town) is a slum settlement (sometimes illegal or unauthorized) of impoverished people who live in improvised dwellings made from scrap materials: often plywood, corrugated metal and sheets of plastic. Shanty towns, which are usually built on the periphery of cities, often do not have proper sanitation, electricity or telephone services.

Settlement Form

the spatial arrangements of buildings, roads, towns and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area.

Nucleated Settlement Form

a settlement clustered around a central point, such as a village green or church.

Dispersed Settlement Form

in comparison with nucleated settlement, a settlement pattern characterized by scattered, isolated dwellings.

Elongated Settlement Form

a settlement that is clustered linearly along a street, river, etc.

Peak Land Value Intersection

the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail

Market Area

the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.

Medieval Cities

cities that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages; extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, a church as the focal point of the city; high walls surrounding

Specialization

the separation of tasks within a system

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