a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. this process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect
the primary greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
(volcanic ash) volcanic ash consists of small pieces of tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions
conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time.
how the atmospheres behaves over relatively long periods of time.
the measure of solar radiation or energy received on a given surface area in a given ime.
a spot or patch appearing dark by its surroundings, caused by the intens magnetic activity.
the change in the amount of radiation emitted by the sun and its spectral distribution over years to millennia.
the period of greatest solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun
the period of least solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun.
the highest temperature recorded during a specified period of time.
the lowest temperature recorded during a specified period of time.
koppen climate classification
the most widely used climate classification systems- vegetation.the best expression of climate.
a combination of abar and line chart used to show the climate of a place over a 12 month period.
natural climate variability
the significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time. (climate changes)
the study of earth's surface shape and features or those of plantes, moons, or asteroids.
the term which collectively means the portions of the earths surface where water is in solid form including sea ice, pond ice, and lake ice
the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet.
the global sum of all ecosystems. can also be the zone of life on Earth.
made up in the lithosphere. this affects climate as an example of the continental drift.
the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation. the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.
A graph that depicts the annual cycle of temperature and rainfall for a geographical locations. On the graph, one vertical access shows temperature, the second vertical access shows rainfall, and the horizontal access shows time.