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Barron v. Baltimore

States do not have to abide by the Bill of Rights, 1883

Gitlow v. New York

Overturns Barron v. Baltimore, states abide by Bill of Rights, 1925

Schenk v. United States

Clear and Present Danger, 1919

Tinker v. Des Moines

Black arm bands allowed in school (Vietnam War), 1969

Miller v. California

Obscenity --> average person's standard, 1973

Texas v. Johnson

legal to burn a flag, 1989

Reno v. ACLU

internet --> can not sensor for minors, 1997

Everson v. Board of Education

Wall-of-separation principal announced, 1947

Engle v. Vitale

no prayer in public school, 1963

Lemon v. Kurtzman

Three tests described to decide if government is improperly involved with religion, 1971

Mapp v. Ohio

Evidence illegally gathered may not be used in a criminal trial, 1961

Gideon v. Wainwright

Persons charged with a crime have a right to an attorny even if they cannot afford one, 1963

Miranda v. Arizona

desccribes ruling that police must give to arrested persons, 1966

Plessy v. Ferguson

upheld seperate-but-equal facilities for white and black people on railroad cars, 1896

Brown v. Board of Education 1954

seperate public schools are inherently unequal, thus starting racial desegregation, 1954

Griswold v. Connecitcut 1965

found a "right to privacy" in the constitution that would ban any state law againsted selling contraceptives, 1965

Roe v. Wade 1973

state laws againsted abortion were unconstitutional, 1973

Planned Parenthood v. Casey 1992

Reaffirmed Roe v. Wade but upheld certain limits on its use, 1992

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978

Quota bans unconstitutional, but diversity was still a legit goal and could take race into account in school addmissions, 1978

Gratz v. Bollinger 2003

numerical benefits cannot be used to admit minorities into college, but race can be a plus factor in making the decisions, 2003

Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review, 1803

McCullough v. Maryland

In establishing a national bank, Congress was legally exercising its enumerated powers not sepcifically mentioned in the Constitution, 1819

Brandenburg v. Ohio

Set test for evaluating freedom of speech cases: will the speech incite "imminent lawless action"? 1969

Buckley v. Valeo

Found that a limitation of a candidate's spending on his/her own campaign is a violation of the first amendment, 1976

Board of Education v. Pico

Ruled that boards of education cannot ban certain books from their libraries because of members' views, 1982

Bethel v. Fraser

Schools can prohibit lewd speech in front of a captive audience, 1986

Hustler Magazine v. Falwell

Public figures must prove malice in libel suits, 1988

United States v. Eichman

Declared Flag Protection Act, which made flag-burning illegal, unconstitutional, 1990

Free Speech Coalition v. Ashcroft

Said that the Child Pornography Prevention Broad, in using broad terminology, abridges free speech, 2002

Near v. Minnesota

Government cannot have prior review of a publication, Minnesota "gag law" is unconstitutional, 1931

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Schools can edit content of student publications, 1988

West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette

Students in public schools may not be compelled to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, 1943

Gregg v. Georgia

Death penalty is not "cruel and unusual punishment" in cases of murder, 1976

Baker v. Carr

One person one vote-state elections (Warren Court's judicial activism.), 1962

Wesberry v. Sanders

One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts, 1964

Clinton v. New York City

Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional, 1998

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964--Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.

Reynolds v. United States

First Amendment protects religious belief, but not criminal practices related to religious belief (polygamy), 1878

Wallace v. Jaffree

Mandatory prayer in schools violates the first amendment, 1985

Oregon v. Smith

Drugs in religious observances, still illegal

Elk Grove Unified District v. Newdow

Teachers can require students to say the pledge of allegiance, Newdow did not have standing to sue because of his custody situation, 2004

Roth v. United States

Obscenity, first amendment protects only speech with some kind of redeeming social importance, 1957

Weeks v. United States

Government doesn't have the right to search someone's home and seize possessions without a search warrant, 1914

New Jersey v. TLO

School officials can search someone's possessions if there is "reasonableness"

Vernonia School District v. Acton

Random drug testing of athletes does not violate the search and seizure clause of the fourth amendment

In Re Gault

Juveniles require due process rights, 1967

Ingraham v. Wright

Eighth amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual" punishment doesn't have to be applied to non-criminal proceedings, such as school discipline, 1977

Roper v. Simmons

The execution of minors violates the "cruel and unusual punishment" clause of the eighth amendment, 2005

Loving v. Virginia

Laws banning the marriage of blacks and whites are unconstitutional, 1967

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