The regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses.
"We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets."
Conjunctions are omitted, producing a fast-paced and rapid prose.
"I came, I saw, I conquered."
The use of many conjunctions to slow the pace.
"I kept remembering everything, lying in bed in the mornings--the small steamboat that had a long rounded stern like the lip of a Ubangi, and how quietly she ran on the moonlight sails, when the older boys played their mandolins and the girls sang and we ate doughnuts dipped in sugar, and how sweet the music was on the water in the shining night, and what it has felt like to think about girls then."
The Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas.
"Our knowledge separates as well as unites; our orders disintegrate as well as bind; our art brings us together and sets us apart."
Grammatical structure of the first clause or phrase is reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words.
"And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."
A sentence that ends with a dependent sentence element--a subordinate element or a modifying phrase.
"A car hit him, just as he bent over to tie his shoelace."
A sentence withholding its main idea until the end.
"Just as he bent over to tie his shoelace, a car hit him."
A sentence with no unnecessary words. Usually five words or less. It is short and to the point to create emphasis.
"The weather is uncomfortable."
A series of three parallel words, phrases, or clauses.
"Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn."
Related to classification and division--a part is substituted for the whole or the species for the genus. Quintalianus tells us that one word makes us think of all things in the class, so "bread" stands for food, "hands" refers to helpers, and the slang expression "wheels" means a car.
Designation of one thing with something closely associated with it.
"Thus we call the head of the committee the CHAIR, the king the CROWN, and the newspaper the PRESS. In the common expression 'man of the cloth,' the reference designates a priest because the customary cloth collar associated with the position."
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
Eg. Major: All mammals are warm blooded.
Minor: All black dogs are mammals.
Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm blooded.
An informally stated syllogism with an implied premise.
"Coppell is a rich suberb, a great place to live."