What does Renaissance mean?
"revival" or "rebirth"
Where did the Renaissance begin?
What was Florence known as?
"the cradle of the Renaisance"
What was the Renaissance a result of?
the changes in society that took place at the end of the Middle Ages due to the Black Death, Great Schism, 100 Years War, and War of Roses.
How did the population decrease end up helping the people during the Renaissance?
Because they had less people to feed so they could gain a food surplus, meaning not everyone had to farm, which lead to a division of labor, new jobs, and revival of trade
What shifted in the Renaissance?
People weren't as focused on religion. They were still devout but it wasn't the main focus. There were other aspects that were equally important
What does secular mean?
Why was Florence the center of the Renaissance?
Because it was a wealty city-state and center of trade in Italy.
Who were the Medici family?
very rich banking family known for their ruthless ambition and ability to get what they wanted often through bribery, corruption and violence. They were never were elected into government positions they used there wealth.
Who were they known as?
the "godfathers of the Renaissance"
Who was Lorenzo de Medici?
grandson Cosimo; known as "The Magnificient", he was extremly clever and smart, his some is Pope Leo 10th, financial supporter of the arts and sciences
Who was Cosmo de Medici?
was the Medici to take over control of Florence officially
What were the causes/characteristics of the Renaissance compared to the Middle Ages?
1. Urban Society
2. Rebirth of interest in the Classical World
3. Secular Society
Describe Urban Society
- Growth of large, wealthy city-states due to increased trade with the East
- Also led to the growth of wealthy, powerful merchant class to be patrons of the arts and sciences
Describe Rebirth of interest in the Classical world?
- Heavily influenced by Greek and Roman culture
- Virtually ignored during Middle Ages
- Now reading Arabic translations of original texts on classical art, philosophy and science
Describe Secular Society
- Society no longer controlled by religion
- More of "Me" society - concerned with the here and now on earth and not just with going to Heaven
- No longer just about God - emphasized individual abilities and fulfilling your potential - becoming a well rounded person
- Stressed a well rounded education as a way for individuals to reach their full potential and become "complete citizens"
- Led to the concept of the "Renaissance man" (or woman), universal man, a person who is well-rounded and versatile, has many interests and is multi-talented like Greek
- People are still devoted to God but it isn't the main focus. People started to want to collect money and possessions
What were the results of the Renaissance?
1. New attitude towards life and a spirit of curiosity
2. Challenges to religious authority and long held beliefs(Protestant Reformation)
3. Great achievements in science (Scientific Revolution)
4. New Intellectual Movement: Humanism
5. Great achievements in literature
6. Great achievements in art
What is humanism?
an intellectual movement, represents a change in attitude from Middle Ages, reflects the influence of the Classical culture, illustrates the spirit of the Renaissance, focuesed on worldly subjects rather than just religious issues
What was individualism?
the belief that the importance of the individual and the indiciduals achievements and problems
What is secularism?
Who was Petrarch?
the Father of humanism, Italian writer, wrote poetry, the first moder poet, perfects the sonnet
What was Canzoniere?
365 sonnets in it one for everyday of the year all written to a girl
What was Canzonniere?
means "Laura" all emotions of love, grief, despair, Laura died very young
Describe Renaissance Literature
- heavily influenced by the Classical world and the new Renaissance philosophy of humanism
- had emphasis on indiviudal achievement reflected in popular "how-to" books which appealed to ambitious men and women
What were the most popular/influencial writtings during the Renaissance?
the Book of the Courtier by Castiglione
Who was Baldassare Castiglione?
writer, diplomat, and frequent visitor to the homes of important people, wrote the Book of Courtier
Describe the Book of Courtier.
- portrait of the ideal cortier
- handbook for European aristocrats
- inspired by both humanist ideas as well as the code of chivalry
What does this book say about the ideal courtier (both male and female)?
women - no longer running manors, running households or courts, same idea from the Middle Ages, more urban, respected for their talents, expected to aspire to this idea (be the Renaissance women), still regarded as property, used in arranged marriage, the father seals buisness deals by marrying off their daughters to another powerful family
What is a dowery?
a sum of money the father of the daughter pays to the husband
What should you have to be a Renaissance man?
make poetry and pros
speak latin and greek
well acquainted with poetry and history
Who was Niccolo Machiavelli?
- political philosopher
- diplomat from Florence but he lost his position and forced into exile when he crossed the Medici family
- witnessed the wars between the powerful city-states that kept Italy from becoming a unified country
- wanted to see Italy united under a strong leader so as to keep other European counrties from invading
- wrote the prince
What was the Prince?
- potrait of the ideal leader
- a bit controversial
- meant to be a tectbook for rulers on how to acquire power and keep it
What does this book say about rulers, power, and success?
achieve power, control, and success are their main goals. When he writes the Prince he completely ignores Christian values, he says that the people who are being ruled are selfish and greedy, if the people are selfish and greedy then the ruler is allowed to be too in order to achieve success
How is Renaissance art different from the Middle Ages?
it was secular, more realistic, had a background, the people has different faces, had body shapes, 3 dimensional, had nudes
What were frescos?
paintings on wet plaster
What were Renaissance artists like?
- competed for patronage of wealthy merchants, city governemts, and even the church
- their art and attitude reflecys new Renaissance atmosphere: wanted recognition and glory for themselves as individuals
- Considered themselves talented and expected fame and fortune to go along with their achievements
Artists did this to gain person wealth and fame.
- Whereas artists of the Middle Ages were anonymous, artists of the Renaissance were well known, often just by their first names
Describe Tribute Money
a fresco painting by Masaccio, 1st attempt of realism, has a background, detailed face, body shape, different outfits
Describe the Birth of Venus
no background/ depth, grace/beauty, secular, kinda pagan, by Botticelli
Who was Brunelleschi?
architect in Florence, influenced by Roman, designed/built duomo
What was duomo?
dome of cathedral in Florence, 1st self supporting dome
by Donatello, made a caste bronze, 1st free standing cast bronze statue, 1st free standing sculpture male nude structure since "antiquity", has a symbol of the "lorals" for Florence, belonged to Cosmo de Medici, religious, realism
Describe Leonardo da Vinci
thought of art as science, wanted to discover the mathmatical formula for beauty/perfection(Golden Ratio), kept notebook/sketchpads for everything, his notes were backwards so people couldn't steal his ideas, sketched modern day inventions, stole corpses and dissected them,
What were some of the things he invented?
large cross-bow, chariot with spikes, tanks
Describe the Viturian Man
- connection between art and math
- used geometry to study human parts
- named after a Roman architect named Vitruvius
Describe the Last Supper
- painted with oil and tempra on fresco
- Judas is hiding on the dark side
- uses vanishing point and linear perspective
Describe Mona Lisa
- located in the Luvv
- small oil painting
- two backgrounds
- carried it everywhere with him until he died
How was Divinci a Renaissance Man?
he was curious and multi-talented
inspired by Christian beliefs, painted/sculpted christian themes, wanted to depict people realistically and beautifully, not secularism, worked for the de MEdici's in Florence, later worked for Pope Julius in Rome(built his tomb and later the Sistine Chapel)
Describe La Pieta
- Mary is holding Jesus's dead body
- face isn't sad
- she is calm
- this was he resigned suffering
Describe Michelangelo's David
- made from marble
- 14 feet tall
- religious theme
- before he kills Goliath
- body and face are tense
- but also has ease
- viens in the hands
- his hands and feet are to big for his body to show that he was a teenager
Describe the Sistine Chapel
- Michelangelo didn't want to do it but Pope Julius asked him
- It's a fresco, meant that he had to work really fast so it doesn't dry
- He hated doing it
- It took him four years to make
- It made him temperarily cross-eyed and had eye and back pain for the rest of his life.
- Male nudes and religious like David
- This picture is the creation sense
- It shows God and Adam
Describe the Sistine chapel's Last Judgment
- last wall
- saying that Jesus is damning alll souls to hell
- the Protestant Reformation happened while he was finishing
- influenced by the artistic styles of both Leonardo and Michelangelo
- combined mathematically perfect space(Leonardo) with ideal beauty (Michelangelo)
- ladies man
- died young
- painted Madonna
Where/when was the Northern Renaissance?
England, France, and the German States
How did the ideas spread north of Italy?
- trade networks
- traveling artists
- printing press
Who/when invented movable type?
Johann Gutenberg, 1456
What was the first book printed?
Before the printing press how were books made?
they were all written by monks, it was very hard to get on because they were extremly hard to find, expensive
What are the effects of this change in production?
people became more literate, affordable
Why is the invention of the printing press so important?
it changes history because we can spread ideas faster, the church can't control it
Who was Desiderius Erasmus?
Christian humanist, priest in the Netherlands, combined Christan and humanism ideas, wrote about a pure and simple Christian life
Who was Sir Thomas More?
Utopia, advisor to Henry the 8th(King of England), humanist, he critizes the Engish government and the society in Utopia
Who was William Shakespeare?
helped spread Renaissance ideas to a mass audience, inspired by the Classical world and his own contemporary world
Who was Christine de Pisan?
Italian born writer living in the French court of King Charles V who wroteon the role of women in society
very unusual women
the City of Women
her job was being a writer(big step for women)
What was Northern Renaissance art like?
- influenced by the Italian Renaissance in attitude but not so much in Classical influence
- less nudes, ideal beauty, and mytholoical scenes
- masters wit paint (not frescos)
- paintings are smaller
- small and detailed
Who was Albrecht Durer?
German painter educated in Italy
Known for his engraving, woodcuts, and self-portraits
Leonardo da Vinci of the Northern Renaissance
What was "Tall Grass" like?
41 by 32 centimeters
Can see every blade of grass
What was his self portait like?
67 by 49 centimeters
Who was Jan can Eyck?
Known for perfecting techniques
Used microscopic detail
Disguising religious symbols
painted the Arnolfini Wedding
Describe the Arnolfini wedding
She isn't pregnant
It's a bundle of fabric she is holding
Served as a wedding certificate
He painted the moment they got married
He signed on the back wall saying that Jan Van was present
Dog = symbol of faithfulness and love
Shoes = symbol of sanctity of marriage
Convex mirror = wood carved frame, 10 medallions that show different scenes from the live of Christ
St. Margret - saint of child bearing on the chair in the back
What was the Protestant Reformation?
Took place during the Renaissance
People of the Renaissance no longer just accepting the Church as people had done during the Middle Ages; now they wanted to reform the Church
Begins as a reform movement (reform = reformation) but ends up shattering Christian unity in Western Europe
Splits the Christian Church into Catholics and Protestants
Ignited by Martin Luther
What were the causes pf the Protestant Reformation?
1. Renaissance Atmosphere
- Humanist philosophy which emphasized the secular, thinking for yourself, being a well-educated individual
- Led people to challenge Church authority
- Printing press - helped to spread these
- Renaissance ideas as well as the ideas of Martin Luther
2. Corruption of the Church
- Worldliness financed by heavy taxation of middle class and poor
- Indulgences: pardon of sins committing in a person life-time, used to make money for the Church to finance the Church projects and fund their lavish life-style
- Did not require actual repentance
- In the Middle Ages - indulgences were granted for good deeds (such as going on the Crusades)
- During the Renaissance - indulgences were given out in exchange for money
- In general, Church and popes failing to meet spiritual needs of its followers - seen as immoral and abusive of power
- People thought the church had strayed too far from its spiritual roots
- Popes were fighting for political power
Who were some early reformers?
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
Who was John Wycliffe?
English, philosopher, theologian
First complete English bible
Four runners of the Protestant reformation
One of the 1st to attack the church
Who was Jan Hus?
excommunitcated and burned
influenced by Wycliffe
Who was Martin Luther?
did the 95 theses, german monk,against the selling of indulgences
Who was Johann Tetzel?
priest, sold indulgences, made salvation a transaction
What were the 95 Theses?
ideas on how to reform the church
Who was Pope Leo X?
needed money to build St Peter's, sent Tetzel
Who was Emperor Charles V and the Diet of Worms?
king of spain, ordered Luther to appear before th diet of worms but he refused
group of church officials
Who was Prince Fredrick Saxony?
powerul north German ruler, supported/protected Luther
How are Luther's beliefs and the practices of the Lutheran Church different from the Catholic Church?
1.God's grace (salvation) through faith alone
2. Rejects the Pope as the head of the Christian Church - Jesus is the only leader
3. Bible - NOT the Pope - was the chief guide to all religious truth
4. "Priesthood of all believers" - one on one relationship with God
5. You don't need the Church to help you with your relationship with God
6. Translated Bible to German
7. Individual could read/understand the Bible
Rejected 5 of the 7 commandments
Banned indulgences, confessions, saints, relics
Replaced Latin to the spoken language (German)
Approved the clergy marrying
Who was Ulrich Zwingli?
first reformer in Switzerland, preached like Luther, killed in battle
Who is John Calvin?
leader after Zwingli, believed in pedestination
What is pedestination?
God knew long before whether they would go the Heaven or hell and nothing you could do would change it
no dancing, drinking, playing cards, no jewelry, no going to the theatre, no colorful clothing, strict laws, hard work, discipline, honesty, and morality
Who was John Knox?
calvanist, lead protestant to overthrough their catholic queen, established scottish prebyterian church, anabaptist
What is anabaptist?
rebaptized adults, punished by death
Henry VIII had been known as the "defender of the faith" yet he later introduced Reformation ideas to england. Why?
political: he wanted power from the Pope and wanted the money to stay in England
personal: he wanted to annul his wife and the Pope wouldn't let him si he broke from the church
What was the Act of Supremacy?
established the church of england with Henry as the supreme head
why is this important?
no more money had to leave the country, gave all power to the king, civil authority rulesover spiritual rules
Describe the Church of England
dissolved monasteries and convents - gave their land to people who agreed with Henry VIII's religious policies
let the clergy marry
celebrated the mass in English rather than Latin and used an English rather than Latin Bible
for the most part though, Henry VIII kept the Catholic forms of worship
Who were the six wives of Henry
1. Catherine of Aragon
2. Anne Boleyn
3. Jane Seymour
4. Anne Cleves
5. Catherine Howard
6. Katherine Parr
Describe Catherine of Aragon
1st wife, get annulled, sister of the Holy Roman Emperor of Charles the 5th, widow of Henry's brother, married 24 years, married when he was 12, had bloody Mary, 2 miscarriages, still born daughter, died at 50, divorced
Describe Anne Boleyn
beheaded, secretly wed, had Elizabeth, miscarried a son, buried at the tower of London
Describe Jane Seymour
married ten days after Anne's execution, had Edward(died early), died in child birth, buried next to Henry, married 10 days after Anne died
Describe Anne of Cleves
divorced, German, married two years after Jane dies, annulled after six months, for political power
Describe Catherine Howard
beheaded, younger then his daughter, made Henry feel young, cheated many times
Describe Katherine Parr
survived Henry, smart, brought harmony to the castle, when Henry died it was rumored that he had cyfillus
Describe Edward VI
son of Jane Seymour, protestant, took throne at age of 10, died of tuberculosis at 16
Who was lady Jane Grey?
appointed by Edward as his heir but overthrown by Mary
Describe Mary Tudor
daughter of Catherine of Aragon, overthrew Lady Jane Grey, catholic, Bloody Mary, unpopular, married to King PHilip
daughter of Anne Boleyn, popular, protestant
What happened in the Counter Reformation?
Aim: series of reforms to strengthen Catholicism throughout the world and check the spread of Protestantism
Even before the Reformation, monks like Savonarola were trying to change the church from within
Savonarola - fiery sermons, convinced people to burn their jewelry known as the "bonfire of the vanities", excommunicated for his fanatical beliefs and later executed
- Jesuits and St. Ignatius Loyola(founder of the Jesuits) - "Society of Jesus"
- Council of Trent,1545 - 1563 - banned the sale of indulgences, rejected the idea of faith by individuals
Pope Paul III - convened by him
- Charles Borromeo - built a new school to educate priests
- Francis of Sales - founded a religious teaching order for women
- The Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books
- Inquisition - church court that tried people if they were heretics, used in Spain, tool for the Church to enforce religious uniformity, used torture until people confessed and begged forgiveness
- List of books they couldn't read and if you did you could never receive salvation
- Actions of women like Teresa of Avila - became a nun against the orders of her father, lax in terms of fasting and prayer so she reformed it, reported visions of Christ, inspired many people to become Catholic
What were the results of the counter reformation?
1. Split in Christian Church and the creation of many different Protestant Sects - such as? - Lutherans, Calvinism, Presbyterians, etc.
3. Europe divided according to religion
4. religious wars