What are Antigens?
any substance capable or exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response
What are Examples of Antigens?
foreign proteins, nucleic acids, large carbohydrates, some lipids, pollen grains, or microorganisms
What are the 3 important aspects of immune response?
Antigen Specific, Systemic, Has Memory
What is Humoral immunity?
An antibody-mediated immunity; Cells produce chemicals for defense
What is Cellular immunity?
cell-mediated immunity; cells target virus infected cells
How would are "self" antigens react in another person?
The other person's body would trigger an immune response and their own cells would destroy our antigens.
Where do B lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
In the bone marrow
Where do T lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
in the thymus
Where do macrophages arise from?
Where do lymphocytes arise from?
hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
How does the humoral immune response work?
B lymphocytes remain immature until an antigen binds to it's surface making it a B-cell. The B-cell then creates a large number or clones. Most turn to plasma cells, but a few become long-lived memory cells.
What do plasma cells do?
They produce antibodies to destroy antigens
What do memeory cells do?
Remember the antigen so that if it ever comes again, the body can mount a faster and stronger response.
What are Antibodies?
soluble proteins secreted by B cells (plasma cells) that aare capable of binding specifically to an antigen.
What are the different antibody classes and their roles?
IgM - can fix complement; IgA - found mainly in mucus; IgD - important in activation of B cell; IgG - can cross the placental barrier; IgE - involved in allergies
What are the four ways that antibodies inactivate antigens?
Complemetnt fixation, neutralization, agglutination, and precipitation
How does the cellular immune response work?
Macrophages present the foreign antigen to the Helper T cell. The Helper T cell then secretes chemicals to signal B cells (plasma cells) and Cytotoxic T cells
What is the purpose of Cytotoxic T cells?
to kill infected cells
What is the purpose of Helper T cells?
recruit other cells to fight invaders, interact with B cells, and secrete lymphokines.