radioactivity was discovered by Antoine Becquerel when studying __________.
the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
radioactive isotope (radioisotope)
any atom containing an unstable nucleus
used by Becquerel
found in dinosaur fossils
T/F radioisotopes change into other isotopes over time
when change occurs in a radioisotope
any charged particle or energy that is emitted from nuclei of radioisotopes
alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays
what are the common types of nuclear radiation?
what is the alpha symbol?
what is the beta symbol?
a positively charged particle made up of two protons and neutrons
same as helium, alpha particle has a ________
alpha particles are the _________ penetrating type of nuclear radiation
an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
because of its single negative charge
why is a beta particle assigned an atomic number of -1?
___________ is trapped in the nucleus while the ___________ is released.
a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus, has no mass charge
speed of light
how fast do gamma rays travel?
atomic # and mass # stay the same but __________________.
nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
radioisotopes in ____,_____,_____,_____,and ______ all contribute to background radiation.
can cause skin damage similar to a burn (not really harmful unless eaten or inhaled)
radon gas (radon-222)
prolonged exposure to this can lead to lung cancer.
geiger counters, film badges
what are two devices that can detect nuclear radiation?
gas-filled tube measures the ionizing radiation, when radiation enters tube, it ionizes with gas atoms and creates an electric current to be measured
how do geiger counters work?
contains a piece of photographic paper that develops as long as an individual is exposed to radiation
how does a film badge work?