The Nervous System

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Integration

_____ is to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed.

Motor Output

_____ is a response to integrated stimuli that activates muscles or glands.

Brain and spinal cord

The organs of the central nervous system are the _____.

to interpret incoming sensory information and issue outgoing instructions

The function of the central nervous system is _____.

Spinal Nerves

An organ in the peripheral nervous system, _____ carry impulses to and from the spinal cord.

Cranial nerves

An organ in the peripheral nervous system, _____ carry impulses to and from the brain.

serves as communication lines among sensory organs, the brain and spinal cord, and glands or muscles.

The peripheral nervous system

Sensory (afferent) division

A part of the peripheral nervous system, the _____ contains the nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system.

Motor (efferent) division

A part of the peripheral nervous system, the _____ contains the nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system.

Somatic nervous system

A division of the motor division of the peripheral nervous system, the _____ is voluntary, consciously controlling skeletal muscles.

Autonomic nervous system

A division of the motor division of the peripheral nervous system, the _____ is involuntary, automatically controlling smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. It is further divided.

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

The autonomic nervous system is divided into the _____.

Neuroglia

Support cells in the NS are called _____.

Support, insulate, protect neurons

The general functions of the Neuroglia are to _____.

Astrocytes

A neuroglia of the CNS, _____ are abundant, star- shaped cells, which brace neurons, form a barrier between capillaries and neurons, and control the chemical environment of the brain.

Microglia

A neuroglia of the CNS, _____ are spiderlike phagocytes which dispose of debris.

Ependymal cells

A neuroglia of the CNS, _____ line cavities of the brain and spinal cord, where their cilia assist with the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Oligondendrocytes

A neuroglia of the CNS, _____ wrap around nerve fibers in the CNS and produce myelin sheaths.

Satellite cells

A neuroglia of the PNS, _____ protect neuron cell bodies.

Schwann cells

A neuroglia of the PNS, _____ form myelin sheaths in the PNS.

Neurons

_____ = nerve cells

cells specialized to transmit messages

Neurons are _____.

nucleus and metabolic center

The Cell body contains the _____ of the neuron.

cell body

The _____ contains the nucleus and metabolic center of the neuron.

Processes

_____ are fibers that extend from the cell body.

Nissl bodies

_____ are specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Neurofibrils

_____ are the intermediate cytoskeleton that maintain the cell shape.

nucleus with a large nucleolus

A _____ is found in the cell body.

Dendrites

A process outside the cell body, _____ conduct impulses toward the cell body. Neurons may have hundreds of these.

Axons

A process outside the cell body, _____ conduct impulses away from the cell body. Neurons only have one of these.

axon hillock

Neurons have only one axon, which arises from the cell body at the _____.

axon terminals

Axons end in _____.

neurotransmitters

Axon terminals contain vesicles with _____.

gap

Axon terminals are separated from the next neuron by a _____.

Synaptic cleft

A _____ is a gap between adjacent neurons.

Synapse

A _____ is the junction between nerves.

Myelin Sheath

The whitish, fatty material covering axons is called the _____.

Schwann cells

_____ produce myelin sheaths in jell roll like fashion around axons in the PNS.

Nodes of Ranvier

The _____ are gaps in the myelin sheath along the axon.

Oligodendrocytes

_____ produce myelin sheaths around axons of the CNS.

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