microbiology

Created by abcdelise 

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43 terms

prokaryote

single celled microorganism that lacks a nucleus

coccus

spherical prokaryote

flagellum

whiplike structure on some cells used for movement

chemoautotroph

prokaryote that obtailns energy directly from inorganic molecules using chemical reactions

binary fission

type of asexual reproduction in which a prokaryote replicates it's DNA and divides in half, producing two daughter cells

endospore

type of spore produced when a bacterium makes a thick internal wall enclosing it's DNA and some cytoplasm

pathogen

disease causing agent such as a bacterium or fungus

sterilization

process of destroying bacterium using chemicals or heat

lytic infection

process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst

retrovirus

virus that contains RNA as it's genetic information

bacillius

rod shaped prokaryote

spirillium

spiral or corkscrew shaped prokaryote

photoautotroph

photosynthetic prokaryote

photoheterotroph

subsides by photosynthesis and consumption of organic compounds

conjugation

form of sexual reproduction, prokaryote or paramecia genitic enfo exchange

nitrogen fixation

conversion of nitrogen gas into amonia

antibiotic

compound that blocks growth and reproduction of bacteria

virus

particle taht can only exist by infecting other organisms

lysogenic infection

process by which virus DNA implants in the host cell's DNA and replicates with it

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

protist

any eukaryote that is not a plant, an animal, or a fungus

amoeboid movement

type of locomotion used by ameobas

cilium

short hairlike projection similar to a flagellum, produces movement in many cells

gullet

indentation in one side of a ciliate that allows food to enter the cell

contractile vacuole

cavity in the cytoplasm of someprotists that collects water and discharges it from the cell

eyespot

group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in the environment

phytoplankton

population of algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton

pseudopod

projection of cytoplasm or false foot used by some protists for feeding or movement

food vacuole

small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food

trichocyst

small, bottle-shaped structures used for defense by paramecia

anal pore

region of the cell membrane of a ciliate where waste-containing food vacuoles fuse and are then emptied into the environment

accessory pigment

compound other than chlorophyl that absorbs light at different wavelengths than chlorophyll

pellicle

cell membrane in euglenas

algal bloom

an immediate increase in the amount of algae

chitin

complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeltons of arthropods

mycelium

many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi

rhizoid

in fungi, a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object

lichen

symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism

hypha

tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold

fruiting body

reproductive structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium

saprobe

organism that obtains food from deccaying organic matter

prophage

the viral DNA that is embedded in the host's DNA

oncogenic virus

certain viruses that cause cancer in animals

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