History Exam Study Guide

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James K. Polk's five goals

1) Get Texas 2) Get Oregon 3) Get California 4) Smash the National Bank 5) Lower Tariffs

What year was James K. Polk elected?

1844

How long did James K. Polk serve and did accomplish all of his goals?

one term and yes

Santa Anna

The President and General of Mexico during the Mexican War and the Texas War for independence.

John C. Fremont

Established the Bear Flag Republic/ was a hero in the Mexican War/ the 1st Republican to run for president in 1856

Sam Houston

The only president of Texas when it was a republic and one of the first senators from Texas

Manifest Destiny

The God-given right for the US to go from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean

Lone Star Republic

What Texas was called when it was its own country for 9 years after the Texas War for Independence

"54, 40 or Fight!"

The slogan used in the argument with Great Britain over the boundary of Oregon in the 1840s

Alamo

Famous battle during the Texas war for Independence, the Texans were killed, and the battle cry afterwards was "Remember the Alamo!"

Bear Flag Republic

California was its own country for 2 days and this was what it was called

Gadsden Purchase

The last land the US got in fulfilling its "Manifest Destiny"/ strip of land at the bottom of the US and Mexico, and it was bought from Mexico to build a railroad.

Why didn't the U.S. want to annex Texas?

a. Would upset the balance of the slave and free states in the Senate b. might start a war with Mexico

Oregon Fever

The desire to go west and start a new life in the 1800s

Forty-Niners

People who went to California looking for gold

Two rules for Americans in Texas

a. Had to Roman Catholic b. Couldn't own slaves c. Had to pledge their allegiance to Mexico

Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

Ended the Mexican War a. The boundary of the U.S. was the Rio Grande b. We got Texas c. We paid $15 million to Mexico for the Mexican Cession

Hardships on the Oregon Trail

Weather, Illness, broken equipment, Indians

Two famous Americans killed at the Alamo

Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie

What is a Dark-horse candidate?

An unknown person who elected to political office.

Two examples of Dark-horse candidates

James Polk and Franklin Pierce

Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

1st missionaries to Oregon/ started a settlement at Walla Walla Washington.

Dred Scott

Slave who was taken from a slave state to a free state were he lived for 2 years/ sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court/ the court denied because it said he was property and not a citizen and couldn't sue in cort

John Brown

Abolitionist who killed 5 people in Kansas during Bleeding Kansas, tried to capture the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, V/A because of this he was hanged for treason and became a symbol for abolitionists

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe/ novel about slave conditions in the south/ fueled the fires of the war because people were horrified by slave conditions

Popular Sovereignty

Right for a territory to decide if it was slave or free/ Stephen Douglass promoted this

James Buchanan

Do-nothing President, elected in 1856, was a doughface

What is a doughface?

Northerner with souther sympathies

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy

Robert E. Lee

Commander who captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry, VA/ became the commander of the Southern forces during the Civil War

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois before the Civil War, nickname was the "Little Giant," promoted popular sovereignty

Frederick Douglass

Former slave who became a famous spokesman for his people

Missouri Compromise

made in 1820 and had 3 parts

Three parts of the Missouri Compromise

1) Maine comes in as a free state 2) Missouri comes in as a slave state 3) No slavery above the 36° 30° line

Secede

To leave the Union

Harper's Ferry, Virginia

Where the U.S. arsenal was located when it was attacked by John Brown

Harriet Tubman

Called Moses of her people/ she led 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Proposed by Stephen Douglas that the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide whether they wanted to be slave or free

Free-Soil Party

The Election of 1838 Martin van Buren was the Candidate from this party/ 1st time the expansion of slavery was questioned on a national scale

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Debate between Lincoln and Douglas in Illinois for the senate seat, went to 7 cities to debate mostly over slavery Lincoln loses but becomes well known

Fugitive Slave Law

Law that said that any slave that escaped to his or her master

Bleeding Kansas

Civil War in Kansas to see if Kansas would be slave or free/ people would send proslavery and antislavery voters from other states/ 200 people were killed one proslavery one antislavery capital

Nat Turner's Rebellion

1831 slave revolt in Virginia/ 60 whites were killed/ significance- whites tightened control on slaves

Election of 1860

Abraham Lincoln was elected president because of a split in the democratic vote/ significance- South Carolina seceded from the Union followed by other Southern States

Underground Railroad

The secret route that slaves took on their way to freedom in the North

Differences between North and South

North- industrial, had a population of 22 million, were mainly abolitionists, favored federal government having more power than the states/ South- agricultural, had a population of 9 million, believed in slavery and states' rights.

Abolitionists

Someone who wants to do away with slavery

Republican Party

Formed in 1856, John Fremont was the candidate, were against slavery, wanted to repeal the Fugitive Slave Act

Compromise of 1850

Henry Clay wrote it a. California enters as a free state to balance Texas which was a slave state in the senate b. Mexican lands were divided into 2 territories-New Mexico and Utah, popular sovereignty would decide if they were slave or free c. Land claimed by Texas and Mexico would become part of New Mexico and Texas was paid $10 million by the government d. No slave trade in Washington D.C. e. Fugitive Slave Act would be enforced f. Kept us out of the Civil War for 10 years

Lewis Cass

The Senator who came up with the idea of popular sovereignty

Three parts of the Confederate Constitution

There would be slavery, there would be low or no tariffs, states would have more power than the federal government

Alexander Stephens

Vice-president of the Confederacy

Zachary Taylor

President of the U.S., was a war hero in the Mexican War, called "Old Ruff and Ready", only president for 4 months before he died

Martin van Buren

President after Andrew Jackson, blamed for the Depression of 1837, he ran again as a Free Soil candidate in 1848

Winfield Scott

Called "Old Fuss and Feathers", war hero during the Mexican War, ran for president, 1st commander in the Civil War for the Union forces

Years of the Civil War

1861-1865

Union capital and president

Washington D.C. and Lincoln

Confederate capital and president

Richmond, VA and Jefferson Davis

Union Commanders

George McClellan, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, George Meade, Ambrose Burnside

Confederate commanders

Robert E. Lee, J.E.B. Stuart, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest, Albert Sidney Johnston

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln freed all the slaves except in the border states

Gettysburg

Turning point in battle in the Civil War, Pickets Charge occurred here, Lee made fatal mistakes, became the beginning of the decline of the Confederacy

Battle of Atlanta

Sherman marched towards Savannah, GA from Chattanooga, TN with 100,000 troops, destroyed everything including Atlanta on his way, called total war

Ft. Sumter

1st battle of the Civil War, in the Charleston Harbor, Southern victory

First Bull Run

Outside of Washington, people went with picnic baskets to watch, 1st major battle of war, South victory/ people realized would be a long war

Chancellorsville

Lee's finest hour, Stonewall Jackson shot by own man

Antietam

The bloodiest day of the war, draw, although the North claimed victory

Shiloh

Battle fought in TN, Confederates were pushing Union Soldiers back to the TN River, Confederates were winning but then Union Reinforcements came down in ships, Northern victory, Bloody Pond and Hornet's Nest happened here, Grant was Union Commander here, Albert S. Johnston was Confederate Commander here, was killed/ remember bloody boot story

Petersburg

9 month Siege, Union army reduced Southern supplies and numbers, soldiers lived in trenches, North victory, crater incident happened here

Vicksburg

Union Army starved out the people of Vicksburg for 2 1/2 months, they had to surrender, lived in caves, Grant was in the Union Commander and by capturing Vicksburg cut the South in 2

Appomattox courthouse

This battle included some of the fiercest fighting in the war and after the battle, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse

Fredericksburg

Fought in the winter of 1862, victory for the South Mary's Heights happened here, Northern Lights appeared in the sky

Name two advantages of the North and the South

North had more money, 92% of the industry, more men. South fighting for its independence, had better generals, fighting on its own land.

Ulysses S. Grant-Civil War and presidency (Credit Mobilier)

The final Commander of the North during the Civil War, he was known for the never retreating, excellent general, yet his presidency was one of the worst in history because he surrounded himself with corrupt people. The Credit Mobilier was one of the scandals, which occurred during his presidency.

Robert E. Lee

Commander of the Confederate forces during the Civil War/ known for being a great military leader and gentleman

Stonewall Jackson

Lee's right hand man, shot by own men at Chancellorsville, excellent general

George McClellan

Twice general of the Union forces, fired by Lincoln because he wouldn't fight

William T. Sherman

Famous for his March to the Sea and for waging total war against civilians, Union Commander

Clara Barton

The Angel of the Battlefield, began the American Red Cross

Dorothea Dix

Started the Nursing Corps for women in the North, cleaned up the nursing profession, and yet was called the Dragon because she was so mean

Ambrose Burnsides

Northern Commander who was known for his foolish attack on Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg and Crater Incident at Petersburg

Pickett's Charge

At Gettysburg-15000 Confederates attacked across an open field and most were killed

Lincoln's Assassination

April 14, 1865, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater while watching "My American Cousin"/ with his death, all hope of the South coming back easily into the Union faded

John Wilkes Booth

The Southern Radical who assassinated Lincoln

Who could vote in 1824?

White males

John Jacob Astor

One of the wealthiest men in America/ got his wealth by starting a trading post in Astoria, Washington in the early 1800s

Davy Crockett

Famous for being one of the best Indian scouts in America/ famous for his coonskin hat and for dying at the Alamo

Caucus

Small group which nominates people for political office, not democratic

Convention

Large group of people which picked people to run for office, more democratic

Stephen Austin

Brought the first 300 families to Texas

Transcontinental Railroad

Railroad that was built that went from the Atlantic to Pacific

Great Triumvirate

3 men who guided Congress for 50 years before Civil War, made up of Henry Clay from Kentucky, John C. Calhoun from South Carolina, Daniel Webster from Massachusetts.

Stepehn Kearny

Commander of Albuquerque, New Mexico during the Mexican War

John Sutter

Man who owned the land where the first gold in California was discovered

Old Hickory

Andrew Jackson's nickname

Ranchos

Huge properties owned by Mexicans/ similar to southern plantations

Nativists

People who wanted to restrict the influence of immigrants and refused to hire them/ prejudiced

California Gold Rush 1849

1849, James Marshall found gold on John Sutter's land around San Francisco, became a rush to find riches

Dates of the Lone Star Republic

1836-1845

How many Mexicans at the Battle of the Alamo?

4000 Mexicans at the Battle of the Alamo vs. 186 Texans

Veto

Means that the president refused to sign a bill into law

Great Compromiser

Henry Clay

Results of the Civil War

No Slavery anymore, States couldn't secede anymore, sped up the development of industry, Federal Government had no more power over the states

"Tippecanoe and Tyler, too"

William Henry Harrison's campaign slogan in 1840/ Tippecanoe was an Indian Battle and Tyler was his running mate

Mexican Cession

Land that the U.S. bought for $15 million from Mexico after the Mexican War

Vigilantes

Groups of people who take the law into their own hands

Railroad industry-biggest after the Civil War

Know the question

Black Codes

Laws which prevented blacks from having rights after the Civil war, blacks wouldn't serve on juries and could only have low paying jobs

Mountain Men-Zebulon PIke

Explored the southwest and discovered Pike's Peak

Mormons and why they succeeded

Religious group who persecuted because of their belief in polgamy/ they moved to Salt Lake and found Salt Lake City, Utah/ they were successful because they learned to tap and control the water supply

Compromises of 1820 and 1850 written by whom?

Henry Clay

Rio Grande

The river which was in dispute during the Mexican War, Americans wanted this as the Southern boundary for Texas and the Mexicans wanted the Nueces River

David Farragut

1st Rear Admiral of the Navy/ commanded ships which captured New Orleans in the Civil War

Sectionalism

Where you care more about your section of the country than the whole

Gettysburg Address

Speech that Lincoln made to dedicate the cemetery after the Battle of Gettysburg/ considered one of the finest pieces of American literature/ Know 1st 2 paragraphs

Battle of San Jacinto

Final battle for the Texas war for independence which the Texans won

John C. Calhoun

The Leader of the Southern States during the time period before the Civil War/ believed in States Rights

William Lloyd Garrison

Editor of an antislavery newspaper during the Civil War, was a radical Abolitionist

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin

Protective tariff

High tax on goods coming into the U.S. which makes people want to buy American made products

Scalawag

Southerners who supported Northers after the Civil War, worked with Reconstruction officials, hated by southerners/ most famous one was General James Longstreet

Length of the Oregon Trail

2000 miles

Depression

When a country goes into an economic decline

Monopoly

Where one company owns all of a product including the means for production

Eli Whitney

Inventor of the cotton gin/ helped to begin the Industrial Revolution in the United States

Savannah, GA

City which Sherman presented to Lincoln as a Christmas present on his March to the Sea

Levi Strauss

Invented the blue jeans for the Forty-Niners and made a fortune

Comstock Lode

The largest sliver-producing vein in America

Andersonville

A Union prison camp in Georgia that was one of the worst for cruelty to its inmates/ commander, Henry Wirtx was hanged for war crimes

Donner Party

A group of settlers going out west did not make it over the mountains in time/ many froze or starved to death, and others resorted to cannibalism

Trail of Tears

Jackson forced to Cherokee Indians to make a 2000 mile march during the winter/ over 4000 died

Cumberland Road

1st national road built with Federal money and it began in Maryland and went to Illinois

Anaconda Plan

The plan the North had for winning the Civil War, written by Winfield Scott/ had 3 parts a. Get the Miss. River and cut the South in 2 b. Capture Richmond c. Blockade Southern states

Franklin Pierce

The Dark Horse candidate for president saw son die and became an alcoholic/ elected in 1852

Goliad

At this site, Santa Anna massacred 300 Texans/ it became a battle cry- "Remember Goliad!"

Suffrage

right to vote

Samuel Slatter

Stole textile plans from England/ came to America and began one of the most successful textile miles/ began Industrial Revolution in America

Erie Canal

Incredible engineering feat for its time/ linked New York City to Lake Erie/ made NYC and industry hub/ also much cheaper to ship goods

Robert Fulton

Perfected the invention of the steamboat/ now boats could go upstream

James Longstreet

Famous Southern General who worked with Reconstruction people from the North after the Civil War and because of this, he was hated by the South

South Pass

A pass through the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming/ used by early settlers

Benjamin Butler

Military mayor of New Orleans during the Civil War, South hated because of the tactics he used/ called the "Beast"

Rodger B. Taney

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who ruled on the Dred Scott Case

Border Ruffians

During "Bleeding Kansas," these pro-slavery Missourians crossed the border to vote in the election for the slavery/ armed and dangerous

Daniel Webster

Famous senator known for his eloquence/ quote-"I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a northern man, but as an American. . . I speak today for the preservation of the Union. Hear me for my cause."

Moderate

Someone who wants social change slowly/ middle of the road on political issues

Radical

Someone who wants social change quickly

Platform

A political party's stand on the issues

Brigham Young and the Mormons

The second leader of the Mormons who led them to Salt Lake City, Utah to settle

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