James K. Polk's five goals
1) Get Texas 2) Get Oregon 3) Get California 4) Smash the National Bank 5) Lower Tariffs
The President and General of Mexico during the Mexican War and the Texas War for independence.
John C. Fremont
Established the Bear Flag Republic/ was a hero in the Mexican War/ the 1st Republican to run for president in 1856
The only president of Texas when it was a republic and one of the first senators from Texas
Lone Star Republic
What Texas was called when it was its own country for 9 years after the Texas War for Independence
"54, 40 or Fight!"
The slogan used in the argument with Great Britain over the boundary of Oregon in the 1840s
Famous battle during the Texas war for Independence, the Texans were killed, and the battle cry afterwards was "Remember the Alamo!"
The last land the US got in fulfilling its "Manifest Destiny"/ strip of land at the bottom of the US and Mexico, and it was bought from Mexico to build a railroad.
Why didn't the U.S. want to annex Texas?
a. Would upset the balance of the slave and free states in the Senate b. might start a war with Mexico
Two rules for Americans in Texas
a. Had to Roman Catholic b. Couldn't own slaves c. Had to pledge their allegiance to Mexico
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Ended the Mexican War a. The boundary of the U.S. was the Rio Grande b. We got Texas c. We paid $15 million to Mexico for the Mexican Cession
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
1st missionaries to Oregon/ started a settlement at Walla Walla Washington.
Slave who was taken from a slave state to a free state were he lived for 2 years/ sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court/ the court denied because it said he was property and not a citizen and couldn't sue in cort
Abolitionist who killed 5 people in Kansas during Bleeding Kansas, tried to capture the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, V/A because of this he was hanged for treason and became a symbol for abolitionists
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe/ novel about slave conditions in the south/ fueled the fires of the war because people were horrified by slave conditions
Right for a territory to decide if it was slave or free/ Stephen Douglass promoted this
Robert E. Lee
Commander who captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry, VA/ became the commander of the Southern forces during the Civil War
Senator from Illinois before the Civil War, nickname was the "Little Giant," promoted popular sovereignty
Three parts of the Missouri Compromise
1) Maine comes in as a free state 2) Missouri comes in as a slave state 3) No slavery above the 36° 30° line
Called Moses of her people/ she led 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad
Proposed by Stephen Douglas that the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide whether they wanted to be slave or free
The Election of 1838 Martin van Buren was the Candidate from this party/ 1st time the expansion of slavery was questioned on a national scale
Debate between Lincoln and Douglas in Illinois for the senate seat, went to 7 cities to debate mostly over slavery Lincoln loses but becomes well known
Civil War in Kansas to see if Kansas would be slave or free/ people would send proslavery and antislavery voters from other states/ 200 people were killed one proslavery one antislavery capital
Nat Turner's Rebellion
1831 slave revolt in Virginia/ 60 whites were killed/ significance- whites tightened control on slaves
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln was elected president because of a split in the democratic vote/ significance- South Carolina seceded from the Union followed by other Southern States
Differences between North and South
North- industrial, had a population of 22 million, were mainly abolitionists, favored federal government having more power than the states/ South- agricultural, had a population of 9 million, believed in slavery and states' rights.
Formed in 1856, John Fremont was the candidate, were against slavery, wanted to repeal the Fugitive Slave Act
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay wrote it a. California enters as a free state to balance Texas which was a slave state in the senate b. Mexican lands were divided into 2 territories-New Mexico and Utah, popular sovereignty would decide if they were slave or free c. Land claimed by Texas and Mexico would become part of New Mexico and Texas was paid $10 million by the government d. No slave trade in Washington D.C. e. Fugitive Slave Act would be enforced f. Kept us out of the Civil War for 10 years
Three parts of the Confederate Constitution
There would be slavery, there would be low or no tariffs, states would have more power than the federal government
President of the U.S., was a war hero in the Mexican War, called "Old Ruff and Ready", only president for 4 months before he died
Martin van Buren
President after Andrew Jackson, blamed for the Depression of 1837, he ran again as a Free Soil candidate in 1848
Called "Old Fuss and Feathers", war hero during the Mexican War, ran for president, 1st commander in the Civil War for the Union forces
George McClellan, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, George Meade, Ambrose Burnside
Robert E. Lee, J.E.B. Stuart, Stonewall Jackson, Nathan Bedford Forrest, Albert Sidney Johnston
Turning point in battle in the Civil War, Pickets Charge occurred here, Lee made fatal mistakes, became the beginning of the decline of the Confederacy
Battle of Atlanta
Sherman marched towards Savannah, GA from Chattanooga, TN with 100,000 troops, destroyed everything including Atlanta on his way, called total war
First Bull Run
Outside of Washington, people went with picnic baskets to watch, 1st major battle of war, South victory/ people realized would be a long war
Battle fought in TN, Confederates were pushing Union Soldiers back to the TN River, Confederates were winning but then Union Reinforcements came down in ships, Northern victory, Bloody Pond and Hornet's Nest happened here, Grant was Union Commander here, Albert S. Johnston was Confederate Commander here, was killed/ remember bloody boot story
9 month Siege, Union army reduced Southern supplies and numbers, soldiers lived in trenches, North victory, crater incident happened here
Union Army starved out the people of Vicksburg for 2 1/2 months, they had to surrender, lived in caves, Grant was in the Union Commander and by capturing Vicksburg cut the South in 2
This battle included some of the fiercest fighting in the war and after the battle, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
Fought in the winter of 1862, victory for the South Mary's Heights happened here, Northern Lights appeared in the sky
Name two advantages of the North and the South
North had more money, 92% of the industry, more men. South fighting for its independence, had better generals, fighting on its own land.
Ulysses S. Grant-Civil War and presidency (Credit Mobilier)
The final Commander of the North during the Civil War, he was known for the never retreating, excellent general, yet his presidency was one of the worst in history because he surrounded himself with corrupt people. The Credit Mobilier was one of the scandals, which occurred during his presidency.
Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Confederate forces during the Civil War/ known for being a great military leader and gentleman
William T. Sherman
Famous for his March to the Sea and for waging total war against civilians, Union Commander
Started the Nursing Corps for women in the North, cleaned up the nursing profession, and yet was called the Dragon because she was so mean
Northern Commander who was known for his foolish attack on Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg and Crater Incident at Petersburg
At Gettysburg-15000 Confederates attacked across an open field and most were killed
April 14, 1865, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater while watching "My American Cousin"/ with his death, all hope of the South coming back easily into the Union faded
John Jacob Astor
One of the wealthiest men in America/ got his wealth by starting a trading post in Astoria, Washington in the early 1800s
Famous for being one of the best Indian scouts in America/ famous for his coonskin hat and for dying at the Alamo
3 men who guided Congress for 50 years before Civil War, made up of Henry Clay from Kentucky, John C. Calhoun from South Carolina, Daniel Webster from Massachusetts.
People who wanted to restrict the influence of immigrants and refused to hire them/ prejudiced
California Gold Rush 1849
1849, James Marshall found gold on John Sutter's land around San Francisco, became a rush to find riches
How many Mexicans at the Battle of the Alamo?
4000 Mexicans at the Battle of the Alamo vs. 186 Texans
Results of the Civil War
No Slavery anymore, States couldn't secede anymore, sped up the development of industry, Federal Government had no more power over the states
"Tippecanoe and Tyler, too"
William Henry Harrison's campaign slogan in 1840/ Tippecanoe was an Indian Battle and Tyler was his running mate
Laws which prevented blacks from having rights after the Civil war, blacks wouldn't serve on juries and could only have low paying jobs
Mormons and why they succeeded
Religious group who persecuted because of their belief in polgamy/ they moved to Salt Lake and found Salt Lake City, Utah/ they were successful because they learned to tap and control the water supply
The river which was in dispute during the Mexican War, Americans wanted this as the Southern boundary for Texas and the Mexicans wanted the Nueces River
1st Rear Admiral of the Navy/ commanded ships which captured New Orleans in the Civil War
Speech that Lincoln made to dedicate the cemetery after the Battle of Gettysburg/ considered one of the finest pieces of American literature/ Know 1st 2 paragraphs
John C. Calhoun
The Leader of the Southern States during the time period before the Civil War/ believed in States Rights
William Lloyd Garrison
Editor of an antislavery newspaper during the Civil War, was a radical Abolitionist
High tax on goods coming into the U.S. which makes people want to buy American made products
Southerners who supported Northers after the Civil War, worked with Reconstruction officials, hated by southerners/ most famous one was General James Longstreet
Inventor of the cotton gin/ helped to begin the Industrial Revolution in the United States
A Union prison camp in Georgia that was one of the worst for cruelty to its inmates/ commander, Henry Wirtx was hanged for war crimes
A group of settlers going out west did not make it over the mountains in time/ many froze or starved to death, and others resorted to cannibalism
Trail of Tears
Jackson forced to Cherokee Indians to make a 2000 mile march during the winter/ over 4000 died
1st national road built with Federal money and it began in Maryland and went to Illinois
The plan the North had for winning the Civil War, written by Winfield Scott/ had 3 parts a. Get the Miss. River and cut the South in 2 b. Capture Richmond c. Blockade Southern states
The Dark Horse candidate for president saw son die and became an alcoholic/ elected in 1852
Stole textile plans from England/ came to America and began one of the most successful textile miles/ began Industrial Revolution in America
Incredible engineering feat for its time/ linked New York City to Lake Erie/ made NYC and industry hub/ also much cheaper to ship goods
Famous Southern General who worked with Reconstruction people from the North after the Civil War and because of this, he was hated by the South
Military mayor of New Orleans during the Civil War, South hated because of the tactics he used/ called the "Beast"
During "Bleeding Kansas," these pro-slavery Missourians crossed the border to vote in the election for the slavery/ armed and dangerous
Famous senator known for his eloquence/ quote-"I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a northern man, but as an American. . . I speak today for the preservation of the Union. Hear me for my cause."
Brigham Young and the Mormons
The second leader of the Mormons who led them to Salt Lake City, Utah to settle
The period of rapid industrial growth that began in Britain in the 1700s and then spread to other nations
March to the Sea-also, what major city was affected the most?
William Tecumseh Sherman, with 100,000 soldiers, marched from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Savannah, Georgia destroying everything in their path/ burned Atlanta on the way to Savannah
Theater in Washington D.C. where President Lincoln was shot while watching the play, "My American Cousin."
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied/ led to election of Thomas Jefferson in the House of Representatives
Native-American guide who led Lewis and Clark on their expedition/ she was only 16 years old
Under Thomas Jefferson/ stopped all shipping to and from the United States/ disastrous law which divided the American people
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored this area beyond the Mississippi River/ bought from France/ doubled the size of the U.S./ 1803/ Bought for $15 million/ Jefferson had a difficult time trying to buy the Louisiana Purchase because it was not in the Constitution
Powerful Shawnee leader who was the religious leader of the Native Americans and who put a curse on the presidents
Tried to put together a Native-American confederation to fight off the white men/ great leader and well-respected by all/ died at the Battle of the Thames
Charged a tribute to trade on the Mediterranean Sea/ U.S. went to war with them and won/ Stephen Decatur became a war hero
Results of the War of 1812
1) Andrew Jackson becomes a war hero which leads to his presidency 2) Nationalism increased 3) Federalist party dies out
Reasons for the War of 1812
1) Great Britain was impressing our sailors 2) Great Britain was giving the Native Americans guns with which to fight the us 3) The War Hawks in Congress were pushing for war
Battle of New Orleans
Fought after the war was over/ helped Andrew Jackson win the presidency because he became a war hero
Famous ship in which the cannon balls bounced off of it/ never lost a battle called "Old Ironsides"
Warned the rest of the world that the Americans were closed to colonization 1) Russia was not to come down and colonize the western coast of the U.S. 2) The U.S. would leave European countries alone 3) Europe was to leave the Americas alone
Supposedly a deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay during the Election of 1824/ This election went to the House of Representatives/ John Q. Adams supposedly told Henry Clay that if he would get people to vote him in House, that Adams would give Clay the Secretary of State job/ caused JQA to lose the election of 1828
Exposition and Protest
John C. Calhoun's reply to the Tariff of 1828 which said that a state should be able to declare a law made by Congress unconstitutioanl
When one is elected and replaces officials with members of his/ her own political party or his/ her friends and supporters
Jefferson Day Dinner
April 1830/ Andrew Jackson said, "Our Federal Union it was must be preserved!"--Calhoun said, "The Union, next to our liberty, is held most dear."
Trail of Tears
The journey west in which thousands of Native-Americans were forced to move west/ hundreds died
Federalists met at Hartford, Connecticut during the War of 1812/ tried to declare the war unconstitutional and null and void/ lost power and died out because of this