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Biosphere

thin layer of air, land, and water that is home to all living things

organism

any living thing

Spontaneous generation

belief that life can come from nonliving things

Francisco Redi

did experiment with red meat to disprove idea of Spontaneous Generation

Biogenesis

principle that life only comes fromlife

Characteristics of life

1. Organization
2. Energy
3. Growth and Development
4. Reproduction
5. Response and Adaptation

cell

basic unit of organization in all living things

growth

an increase in matter

development

change in shape or form

reproduction

process through which new living things are formed

response

reaction to a change in the environment

adaptation

way for an entire population to respond to changes in the environment

Levels of organization

1. Cells
2. Tissues
3. Organs
4. Systems

tissues

group of cells working together to perform a specific function

organs

made of several tissues that function for a specific purpose

systems

several organs working together to perform a major function

predator

organism that kills and eats other organisms

prey

organism that gets eaten

symbiosis

organisms of different species depending on each other

mutualism

both partners benefit

commensalism

one partner benefits and the other is unharmed

parasitism

one member benefits and the other is harmed

Scientific Method

common steps used to gather information to solve problems

experiment

procedure that tests a hypothesis by a process of collecting information under controlled conditions

control

standard in which all things are kept the same

variable

the condition in an experiment that is changed

theory

hypothesis that has been supported by statistical data over a period of time

homeostasis

maintenance of a stable set of internal conditions within an organism

Robert Hooke

British scientist credited with discovering the cell while looking at cork

cell theory

1. cell is the basic unit of life
2. all organisms are made of one or more cells
3. all cells come from existing cells

cell membrane's structure

fluid-mosaic model presents the modern view of _____

prokaryotes

organisms without a nucleus

eukaryotes

organisms with a nucleus and organelles

diffusion

movement of molecules form an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

isotonoic

when the concentrations of water inside and outside the cell are equal

phosphates

a cell membrane is a thin layer of lipids and _________

vacuole

the function of this structore is to store water, ions and wastes

cytoplasm

the liquid between the cell membrane and the nucleus

small molecules, high temperature

combination where molecules would diffuse faster

organelle

structure that carries out a specific function (nucleus, mitochondria, ribosome, etc.)

hypotonic solution

concentration of water outside the cell is lower than the concentration of water in the cell

lysosomes

organelle that rides cells of poisons and toxic wastes

animal cell

cell that does not have a cell wall

mitochondria

abundant supply located in an athlete's leg muscles

phagocytosis

when a cell membrane encloses and takes in food particles

exocytosis

when the cell membrane opens up to get rid of waste products

transmission electron microscope

used to view a 3-D image of a cell wall

nucleus

control center of the cell

mitochondria

functions to produce the cell's energy

cytoskeleton

fibrous elements that give the cell support

lysosomes

contain digestive enzymes to digest wastes

ribosomes

little black organelles involved in protein synthesis

chromosomes

thin strands of DNA that contain the genetic blueprints

golgi bodies

membrane bound sacs that package proteins

cell wall

rigid outer structure found in plants

nuclear membrane

has pores that allow materials to move in and out of the cell

hypertonic solution

concentration outside the cell is lower so the water moves out of the cell

Thymine

in DNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of

DNA

geneticists Chase and Hershey confirmed that the molecule of heredity was

Sex-Influenced Trait

expression of a trait is caused by hormones, expressed in both sexes but expressed differently (Baldness is an example of this)

Gene Mapping

method scientists use to locate genes on chromosomes

Nitrogen Bases

Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine are called

Nondisjunction

failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during cell division

X Chromosome

Sex linked traits are normally carried on the

Guanine

base that pairs with Cytosine

Monosomy

having only one copy of a chromosome

Replication

process by which DNA copies itself

Polyploidy

when nondisjunction occurs in all chromosome pairs

Crick

one of the scientists who made the model of DNA

Nucleotide

basic unit of DNA

Karyotype

photograph showing all of an organism's chromosomes

Sex Linked Traits

a recessive trait that is found on the X chromosome

Sex Limitied Traits

are only expressed in the presence of sex hormones

Trisomy

having three copies of a chromosomes

Autosomes

22 pairs of matching homologous chromosomes

Double Helix

a spiral twisted ladder made up of sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate molecules

Human Genome Project

trying to sequence all of the DNA in the human body, supporters say all information is helpful, opposers don't think information useful

pp

homozyous recessive individual

Codominance

Type AB blood is an example

PP x pp

symbolizes a cross between a purebred tall plant and purebred short plant

1:1

genotypic ratio of an offspring from a heterozygous tall plant crossed with a short plant

Law of Segregation

states that during meiosis each pair of alleles separates

Carrier

carries a recessive trait that is not expressed

Heterozygous

organism with the genotype Bb

Probability

is represented as a fraction, ratio, or percentage

Polygenic Trait

eye color, which involves many genetic factors

Incomplete Dominance

shown when a red flowering plant is crossed with a white flowering plant and only pink flowering plants are produced

Trait

characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring

Monohybrid Cross

study the inheritance of only one trait

Genotype

acutal genes that are in a cell

Homozygous

when both genes of a pair are the same

Heterozygous

when paired genes are different from each other

Genetics

study of heredity

Dominant

stronger or more forecefull trait

Phenotype

the way that a trait looks

Law of Independent Assortment

genes for different traits are inherited indpendently of each other

Pedigree

chart that shows how a trait is inherited in a family

Alleles

genes that have contrasting effects

Test Cross

cross of a homozygous recessive with an unknown Genotype

Punnett Square

grid for organizing genetic information

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