Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
New French colony that became the greatest producer of sugar in the Atlantic world.
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century.
A privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation.
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas.
wealthy owners of large sugar plantations who dominated the economy and society of the island, great whites
less-well-off Europeans, most served as colonial officials, retail merchants, or small-scale agriculturaliists
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave
The economic system of large financial institutions- banks, stock exchanges, investment companies- that first developed in early modern Europe.
slaves who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country
The network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system
The part of the Atlantic Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas.
A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the Muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
An agricultural and trading people of central Sudan in West Africa. Aside from their brief incorporation into the Songhai Empire, these city-states remained autonomous until the Sokoto Caliphate conquered them in the early nineteenth century.
A powerful West African kingdom at the southern edge of the Sahara in the Central Sudan, which was important in trans-Saharan trade and in the spread of Islam.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
The Military Class, everyone who served in the military or the bureaucracy and conversed in Osmanli was considered to belong to this class.
paid taxes that supported both the sultan and the military in return for the protection and justice these groups provided.
Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles and attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali.
Shah Abbas I
The fifth and most renowned ruler of the Safavid dynasty in Iran. Abbas moved the royal capital to Isfahan in 1598.
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community.
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India. He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
In India, grants of land given in return for service by rulers of the Mughal Empire.
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar married a princess.
Officials that became independent in Bengal and Oudh, similarly with a Mughal sultan who gave up on the government.
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641.
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
Fort established as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire
Literally, great name(s). Japanese warlords and great landowners, whose armed samurai gave them control of the Japanese islands from the eighth to the later nineteenth century. Under the Tokugawa Shogunate they were subordinated to the imperial government.
The last of the three shogunates of Japan.
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of the empire saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
Qing Emperor. He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last emperor was overthrown in 1911.
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire.
Russian principality that emerged gradually during the era of Mongol domination. The Muscovite dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276 to 1598.
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk.
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in the sixteenth century.
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some worked as artisans and in factories; it was not abolished there until 1861.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. They led the conquest of Siberia in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)