Philip's gray granite palace; had massive walls & huge gates that demonstrated his power; it reflected his faith because a monastery as well as a palace were within its walls
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.
Philip II of Spain
King of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I, strengthened the Catholic church and made his own power absolute.
Thirty Years War
Last and most destructive RELIGIOUS WAR. Began with a failing Peace of Augsburg, religious division, and a fragmented German nation. 4 phases. Began as religious war but ended as a POLITICAL one. Ended 1648 with TREATY OF WESTPHALIA. France emerged dominant while Spain/Habsburgs lost power.
Phases of the Thirty Years War
Phase 1: Hapsburg Domination
Phase 2: Swedish Intervention
Phase 3: French Intervention
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship in France (Henry IV)
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
Louis XIV of France
The Sun King
I am the State
The great palace of Louis XIV. Demonstrated Louis' power
imposed by Louis XIV, they were law officials who collected taxes and administered justice, and were cause of much discontent, "government agents"; took power from nobles and consolidated power of the King
War of Spanish Succession
a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
This mercantilist economist was the financial advisor to Louis XIV
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Maria Theresa of Austria
Empress of Austria whose main enemy was Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
the 18th century ruler who called himself/herself "the first servant of the state" was
Seven Years War
Austria vs Prussia; Austria abandoned old ally Britain for France and Russia; Prussia joined with British (WINNERS); significance: no territorial changes in Europe, Britain gained complete control over the overseas colonies of France (called The French and Indian War in North America); Russia and Prussia emerged as powerful forces in European affairs
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from the late 17th century to the early 18th century, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia, built St Petersburg (warm water port)
Divine Right of Kings
the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
the principle of complete and unrestricted power in government
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
French writer and brilliant thinker that wrote Meditation. He created philosophy that influenced modern thinkers and helped develop scienticic method. Meditations on First Philosophy.
the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
James I of England
he was declared King of England by will of Elizabeth; first Stuart ruler, son of Mary Stuart, Queen of the Scots; viewed his authority superior to Parliament
Charles I of England
1600-1649; King of England 1625-1649; numerous conflicts with Parliament; fought wars with France, Spain, and Scotland; eventually provoked Civil War, convicted of treason, and beheaded
Roundhead general who won Civil War for the Cavaliers with his New Model Army; eventually became a military dictator
Parliament convened by Charles I in 1640; lasted on and off for 20 years; passed laws that limited power of monarchy
the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660
Charles II of England
his reign was called 'restoration'
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler