WHat suborder is the family Ziphiidae under?
What is the family Ziphiidae made up of?
# of gen and spec in family Ziphiidae?
6 genera and 18 species
is the family Ziphiidae social?
highly social, form large groups with highly synchronized behavior (grouped like shcools of fish)
Does the family Ziphiidae migrate?
many have annual migrations
What is spacial subdivision in family Delphinidae?
females and young have vertical stacking and male groups form horizontal line
WHat suborder is family Phocenidae under
# of gen and spec in family Phocenidae?
4 gen and 6 spec
Where does the family Phocenidae occur?
coastal waters of NA , SA, parts of Asia and in some river systems
WHat are the characteristics of the family Phocenidae?
small- 1.5 m in length, reduced dorsal fin, jaws short
What dentition in family Phocenidae?
teeth are not conical but spade-like with some cusp develoment (2-3)---- 15/15-------30/30
WHat overall appearance of family Phocenidae?
Where does the family family Phocenidae occur?
occur in a diverstiy of coastal habitats (some occur in brackish estuaries and bays) (others occur in rivers such as amazon) (others occur in open coastal waters)
What social behavior of family Phocenidae?
some form groups of 100 or so (form feeding groups) while others form smaller family groups
What does family Phocenidae eat?
variety of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans
What suborder is the family Platanistidae under?
How many gen and spec under family Platanistidae?
4 gen and 5 spec
What kind of distribution does the family Platanistidae have?
Where is the family Platanistidae distributed?
major tropical river systems (india-ganges river, SA-amazon and orinoco river and china-ganges & Yonzte river)
What are the characteristics of family Platanistidae?
small (1.5- 3 m) , the rostrum and jaw are very long, abrupt forehead, eyes reduced with heavy reliance on echolocation and lacking some senses
What is the dentition in family Platanistidae?
numerous teeth 26/26------61/61
What habits of family Platanistidae?
the ganges river dolphin is peculiar because it swims on its side
What does the family Platanistidae occupy?
large river systems, muddy water
Is the family Platanistidae social?
social system is minimal with small groups and many are solitary
What does the family Platanistidae eat?
fish and invertebrates- use floods to forage in jungle
What is Order Rodentia made up of?
how many fam, gen, spec in Order rodentia?
31 families, 440 genera, 2000 + species
What is the largest of all mammalian orders?
Is the order rodentia successful?
very for many reasons
What dentition of order rodentia?
dental formula is 1/1 0/0 2/1 3/3 or fewer, all have one pair of ever-growing incisors, reduced incisors, no canines, and no more than three molars
What is the jaw like in the order rodentia?
the jaw articulation has and elongation of the glenoid fossa---->expanded- becomes a flat surface and allows for anteri-posterior and transverse motion
What, in the order rodentia, is well developed and is the complex primary muscle of jaw action?
What is the history of the order rodentia?
origin in late paleocene
What happened to order rodentia in paleocene?
origin of the masseter on the zygomatic arch, masseter small, temporalis large, jaw closure done by temporalis
What are the teeth in order rodentia?
1/1, 0/0, 2/1, 3/3- cheek teeth brachyodont
Was order rodentia successful?
early forms were fairly successful, they invaded the herbivorous niche early on
What did the rodents compete with and what happened?
competes with multituberculates and the rodents won- spread rapidly due to reporductive superiority
What was the order rodentia in eocene?
they were almost cosmopolitan (N. Hemisphere)
What were changes associated with order rodentia during the eocene?
modifications included jaw musculature and teeth
What was order rodentia by the end of the Oligocene?
by end of the oligocene, over half of the modern families had been established
What happened to order rodentia in miocene?
new habitats--->new adaptive radiations (due to balloon of angiosperms and deserts which lead to even more radiations and changes
What was order rodentia overall key to success
continued ability to successfully invade new habitats
What was critical to the order rodentia success?
What were trends in the jaw in order rodentia?
shift in musculature, division of labor among teeth, heavy wear (ever growing)
What is the division of labor among teeth in order rodentia?
incisor and cheek teeth usable and some arent, incisors gnaw, clip and dig, and the cheek teeth masticate by rotary grinding
What does jaw position in order rodentia do?
engages one set of teeth or the other
What are the mechanical aspects of jaw in order rodentia?
anteriorly positioned muscles (advantage for power in gnawing), effective movement of jaw for cheek teeth need precise control of jaw in all planes
Changes of jaw in order rodentia also lead to changes in what anatomical feature?
leads to changes in the cranial and muscular changes---- optimization of coth central functions
Overall in order rodentia there are how many grades of skull and jaw advancement
grade 1, grade 2. grade 2", grade 3
What is Grade 1 in order rodentia?
primitive- temporalis muscles large, masseter small with origin on zygomatic arch, primarily associated wtih up and down and anterior posterior movement (the expansion of masseter makes more refined and efficient jaw action)
What is Grade 2 in order rodentia?
Sciuromoph- result of increased competition (in late Eocene), subdivisions of masseter shifted (3), lateralis-anterior zygomatic and rostrum, temporalis muscle reduced @ least some, passes under zygomatic
What Grade 2" in order rodentia?
Histricomorph- M medialis has greater origin on rostrum, portions pass through enlarged infraorbital foramen to lateral surface of dentary, temporalis reduced, angular recess of dentary flared
What is Grade 3 in order rodentia?
myomorph (most advanced)- all subdivisions of masseter present, well developed 3 branches of M. lateralis, tenporalis reduced or absent, combination of Sciuomorph & histicomorph, medialis like histricomorph
How many suborders in order rodentia and what are they?
2- Sciuragnathia and Histricognathi
What type of jaw in suborder Sciuragnathia?
How many families in suborder Sciuragnathia?
What are the 9 families under suborder Sciuragnathia?
Aplodontidae, Sciuridae, Castoridae, Geomyidae, Heteromyidae, Dipodidae, Muridae, Anomaluridae, Pedetidae
WHat kind of family is Aplodontidae?
monotypic, very primitive
Family Aplodontidae is survivor of what?
of a group of seven families from the fossil record
What is the name of the mountain beavers?
WHere is Family Aplodontidae found?
restricted to the mountains of the pacific northwest
WHat are the characteristics of the Family Aplodontidae?
masseter has origin exclusively on the zygoma
What are the teeth in Family Aplodontidae?
1/1 0/0 2/1 3/3- ever growing incisor and cheek teeth
What was the earliest appearance of Family Aplodontidae?
WHere is did the Family Aplodontidae spread after Oligocene?
europe, and asia, but now greatly restricted
WHat does the Family Aplodontidae eat?
diversity of plant material such as barkm forbs, new shoots
WHat is a forb?
small herbatious, low growing plants
Is the Family Aplodontidae social?
live in small family colonies
Where is the habitat of Family Aplodontidae?
live close to streams and build hay piles to nest in
How mnay gen and spec in Family Sciuridae?
50 gen and 273 species
Where is the Family Sciuridae found?
diverse, broadly distributed----absent from australia, madagascar, polar regions, and south america
WHat are the two basic groups of Family Sciuridae?
arboreal ( live in or nest in trees) and terrestrial ( burrows but forages above ground)
Where did the Family Sciuridae (time period) first come about?
history - date back to oligocene of north america
What are the characteristics of Family Sciuridae?
cranial (post orbital process present , zygomatic arch flattened anterior---->zygomatic plate, skull arched in profile)-the skull has flexibility to it, bendable, rostrum at a downward angle in comparison to brain case)
WHat are the teeth in Family Sciuridae?
1/1 0/0 1-2/1 3/3- cheek teeth rooted, occlusals with transverse ridges
What is the body in Family Sciuridae?
relatively unspecialized, with exceptions to the gliders arboreals and fossorials
How are the gliders in Family Sciuridae specialized?
limbs are slightly elongated, development of patagium membranes, broader and flattened tails
What are the specializations of arboreals in Family Sciuridae?
long bushy tail with sharp cat like claws
What are the fossorial like in Family Sciuridae?
fusiform body, some reduction in tails, external ears, and some limb changes
What are the habits of the Family Sciuridae?
diurnal (except gliders)
What are the members of Family Sciuridae that are not diurnal?
Petauristinae are specialized for gliding and are nocturnal
What does the Family Sciuridae eat?
they are herbivorous to omnivorous
DOes the Family Sciuridae hibernate?
some hibernation is seen
Is the Family Sciuridae social?
highly developed in some such as prairie dogs and ground squirrels
What is the family Castoridae made up of?
how many genus and species in family Castoridae ?
1 gen and 2 spec
What is the distribution of family Castoridae ?
WHat is the origin of family Castoridae ?
oligocene, radiation---> diversity of forms
WHat are the different forms of the family Castoridae ?
fossorials and giants
Living forms of family Castoridae are what?
What size is the member of family Castoridae ?
What kind of pelage does the family Castoridae ahve?
dense underfur (adaptations to water, cool or cold)
What are adaptations of the family Castoridae ?
pelage, broad horizontally flattened tail (for bldg dam and construction), webbed feet (aquatic use), nictating membrane over eyes (goggles), valvular nostrils and ears (no h2o enter), larynx epiglottis and tongue, auditory bulla
What good is larynx, epiglottis, & tongue in family Castoridae ?
allows it to be able to breath through nose even if mouth is under water
What are the auditory bulla in family Castoridae ?
long and tube like extensions (vase like)
What kind of skull does the family Castoridae have?
What are the teeth in family Castoridae ?
1/1 0/0 1/1 3/3- occlusal surfaces complex
WHere does the family Castoridae occur?
in fresh water environments ONLY, often associated with forested areas, some occur in desert of southwest or in Great Plains area
WHat does family Castoridae do in plains?
digs or burrows into banks
WHat does family Castoridae do in forests?
build elaborate dams, lodges (house in middle of pond)
What does the family Castoridae eat?
bark and cambium of trees
Does the family Castoridae hibernate?
active year round, in the winter they move around under ice feeding on stock piled branches
How can family Castoridae modify the environment?
cutting of trees, build dams, can lead to flooding of vast areas----> ponds and lakes
Seeking of what lead to early pressure to explore?
valued beaver pelts
What is the family Geomyidae made up of?