ch. 7 chemistry vocab

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48 terms · peck

an ion that has a negative charge

anion

an ion with a positive charge

cation

the force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons

chemical bond

a three dimensional geometric arrangement of particles in which each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions; vary in shape due to sizes and relative numbers of the ions bonded

crystal lattice

an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current

electrolyte

the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound

ionic bond

compounds that contain ionic bonds

ionic compound

the energy required to separate one mole of the ions of an ionic compound, which is directly related to the size of the ions bonded and is also affected by the charge of the ions

lattice energy

the simplest ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound

formula unit

an ion formed from only one atom

monatomic ion

the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion

oxidation number

a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms

oxyanion

an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge

polyatomic ion

a mixture of elements that has metallic properties; most commonly forms when the elements are either similar in size or the atoms of one element are much smaller than the atoms of the other

alloy

the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal and are not attached to a particular ion

delocalized electron

proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a sea of electrons and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility

electron sea model

the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons

metallic bond

what is a chemical bond? the attraction between....

a positive and negative ion

what forms the chemical bonds?

valence electrons

cations form when:

an electron is lost

anions form when:

electrons are gained

to name an anion, change the ending to ___

ide

groups 1-3 are ____

cations

groups 5-7 are

anions

all other ionic compounds aside from oxides are ___

salts

describe a binary ionic compound:

2 elements, 1st is a metal, 2nd is a nonmetal

strength of bond is determined by.....

melting point, boiling point, and hardness

melting and boiling points of ionic compounds:

high

what is one characteristic of an electrolyte?

can conduct electricity

energy is absorbed

endothermic

energy is released

exothermic

ionic bonds are usually endo or exothermic?

exo

in an ionic bond, ______ determines what will break the bond

lattice energy

smallest particle of an element

atom

how many elements do ternary ionic compounds have?

more than 2 - one cation and a polyatomic ion (polyatomic ions have more than one atom)

only positive polyatomic ion

ammonium

nearly all the polyatomic ions end in ___

ate or ite

exceptions of ending in ate or ite in polyatomic ions:

hydroxide, cyanide, and peroxide

oxyanion with more oxygen ends in ____

ate

oxyanion with less oxygen ends in ___

ite

naming ionic compounds: name ____ first

positive ion

metal atoms close together and overlap, forming a _____

electron sea model

in a metallic bond, electrons are called _____

delocalized electrons

in a metallic bond, bc each outer electron can move, each atom is a ____

cation

metallic bonds are held together by the attraction of the ____ and the ____

positive nuclei; delocalized electrons

charge sequence on the periodic table:

1+ 2+ 3+ skip 3- 2- 1- skip

possible chages of copper

1+ and 2+

possible charges of iron

2+ and 3+

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