What are three nucleic acid inhibitors?
Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim, Quinolones
What are the three components of folic acid?
Pteridine unit, PABA, glutamate
Sulfonamides compete with what for the incorporation into folate molecule?
Are sulfonamides bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal?
Today, which agents are resistant to sulfa agents?
E. coli and N. meningitidis
How are sulfonamides excreted?
Via kidney after acetylation and glucoronidation in the liver
What are toxicities of sulfonamides?
Crystalluria, sulfa stones, acute hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, DO NOT USE IN PREGNANCY (kernicterus), Stevens-Johnson reaction
Sulfa agents can displace what drugs from albumin, thereby increasing their activity?
Warfarin, methotrexate, chlorpropamide, and tolbutamide
Which specific sulfa agents used to treat UTI due to its solubility?
Which sulfa agents is combined with trimethoprim?
Which sulfa agent has long half life and used in combination with pyrimethamine for prophylaxis and treatment of malaria?
Which sulfa agent is used to treat UC?
Topical sulfonamides can be used for what?
Treatment of burns
Which drugs are dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors?
What does dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors do?
Prevent conversion from dihydrofolic acid (FH2) to tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4)
Name two quinolones.
1. Nalidixic acid
What is nalidixic acid used for?
Urinary antiseptic. Active against aerobic gram-negative rods.
Ciprofloxacin is what type of quinolones?
What is MOA of ciproflaxacin?
Inhibits DNA gyrase
Ciproflaxacin may increase levels of what drug and decrease clearance of what?
Increase theophylline and decrease clearance of caffeine
Levofloxacin has better activity against what organism?
Streptococci. Community onset respiratory infections
Fluoroquinolones have excellent activity against what types of organisms?
Gram-negative aerobic bacteria
Which organism is not inhibited by sulfonamides but are actually stimulated by their growth?
Crystalluria, more common in acidic or basic urine?
Sulfonamides, acid urine
Hemolytic or aplastic anemia, thromcocytopenia
Sulfonamides may provoke hemolytic reactions in patients with what deficiency?
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Sulfonamides taken near end of pregnancy may cause what in neonates?
Dihydrofolic acid reductase inhibitor