An organism that makes its own food often by photosynthesis thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules. Plants, algae, and numerous bacteria are autotrophs.
Organisms that make organic food molecules from CO2, H2O, and other raw materials. A plant, alga, or autotrophic prokaryote.
organisms that obtain energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2 by photosynthesis
a green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants, algae and certain prokaryotes. Chlorophyll A can participate directly in the light reactions which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
the green tissue in the interior of a leaf, a leaf's ground tissue system, the main site of photosynthesis
A pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf, when stomata are opened CO2 enters the leaf and water and O2 exit. A plants conserves water when its stomata are closed.
one of a number of disk shaped membranous sacs in the inside of chloroplasts. Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and the enzymes of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids is called the granum.
A stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membrane of in a chloroplast. Grana are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
the second of two stages of photosynthesis, a cycle series of chemical reactions that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using the carbon of CO2 and ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions to make an energy rich sugar
the incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the carbon of organic compounds. During photosynthesis in a C3 plant, carbon is fixed into a 3 carbon sugar as it enters the carbon cycle, in C4 and CAM plants carbon is fixed into a 4 carbon sugar
the entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer
the distance between crests of adjacent waves such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum
a fixed quantity of light energy, the shorter the wavelength of light the greater the energy of the photon
a light capturing unit of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane consisting of an action center complex surrounded by numerous light harvesting complexes
reaction center complex
in a photosystem in a chloroplast the chlorophyll A molecules and the primary electron acceptor that trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron excited by light energy to the primary electron acceptor which passes an electron to the electron transport chain
the production of ATP by chemiosmosis during the light reactions of photosynthesis
a plant that uses the calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a 3 carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
In a plant cell, the breakdown of a 2 carbon compound produced by the calvin cycle. The calvin cycle produces the 2 carbon compound instead of it's usual three carbon product G3, when leaf cells fix O2 instead of CO2. Photorespiration produces no sugar molecules or ATP
a plant that prefaces the calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four carbon compounds, the end product supplies CO2 for the calvin cycle
A plant that uses an adaption of photosynthesis in arid conditions in which CO2 entering open stomata is converted into organic acids which release CO2 for the calvin cycle during the day when stomata are closed.
the warming of the atmosphere caused by CO2 CH4 and other gases that absorb infrared radiation and slow its escape from the earth's surface
a slow but steady rise in the earth's surface temperature caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and CH4 in the earth's atmosphere