Alfonso de Albuquerque
Portuguese who reached India and took over Malaca; wiped Muslim population out
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
Dutch farmers who settled in areas outside the city of Cape Town.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
a system that permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers.
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
a Flemish cartographer who created the most famous map projection in history, the Mercator projection.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
an economic theory that held that a nation's prosperity depended on its supply of gold and silver and that the total volume of trade is unchangeable; therefore, advocated that the government play an active role in the economy by encouraging exports and discouraging imports.
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
People of African and European descent
Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sirud-daula ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India
In legends popular from the 12th to 17th centuries, he was a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this ruler.
Samuel de Champlain
Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France. The major role Champlain played in the St Lawrence River area earned him the title of "father of New France."
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
British diplomat; he visited China in 1793 to discuss expanding trade. He was sent away after his goods were found to be inferior and he refused to kowtow to the emperor