France pre 1789. Legally aristocratic.
Clergy; 100,000 out of 24 million in France. Church owned 5-10% of the land in France and typically did not have to pay taxes on it.
Nobility; 400,000 out of 24 million in France. Like Clergy, tax exempt. They dominate the officer core of the army and get some government positions.
Peasants 80%; own 40% of land in France, most of the tax burden
Bourgeouise 8%; French foreign trade increases 5 folds, looking for a level status with the nobility, big participants in the Enlightenment
Wage Earners 10%; Price inflation has hurt them greatly, found in cities, play vital role in revolution
Began the Revolution
Problem facing Louis XVI's government
25% spent on Military, 50% spent to pay off debt, 6-8% Palace of Versailles
Reason the Estates General was called
To vote on the issue to tax the 1st and 2nd Estates
cahiers de doleances
lists of grievences drawn up prior to the meeting of the Estates General
"What is the Third Estate?"
Pamphlet calling for change in 1789
Tennis Courth Oath
The National Assembly (3rd Estate plus extras from Estates General who broke away) is locked out of their meeting building by Louis XVI on June 17th. They walk to find the next biggest area which happens to be a tennis court and takes an oath saying "We will not be disbanded until we give France a constitution"
What led to the Storming of the Bastille?
Prices of bread rose greatly.
Old Finance Minister, Necker, is fired.
the Great Fear
In the counrtyside, some peasants want to destroy feudal records of what they owed to the noblemen. They had been frightened into thinking the nobleman were coming after them. Was the peasant equivalent to the Storming of the Bastille, an attack on the established powers.
government bonds printed in the value of church land. National Assembly sells the church land bonds and are exchanged by people so they print more which lead to inflation which angered the people.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
In July of 1790 this is put into place and the clergymen are now to be paid like employees of the state in lou of taking their land. Priest and Bishops were now to be elected by the people. Clergy were forced to swear alligence the French government but only half did.
nobelmen who fled France during the revolution
Declaration of Pillnitz
In August of 1791, this was issued by Austria and Prussia. Stated: If the major powers of Europe agree to it, we will intervene and restore order in France. (Put Louis XVI back in absolute monarchy)
In July of 1792, a Prussian commander declared this, stating; If the people of Paris harm Louis XVI in any way they will greatly pay for their actions.
a group of Jacobins named because many of them came from the department of the Gironde in southwest France. They were determined to oppose the forces of counterrevolution. But felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class and Louis XVI from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain party.
a group of Jacobin radicals who caused riots to oppose forces of the counterrevolution. Put to death the Girondist party for defending Louis XVI or in their words "defending the counterrevolution"
Committee of Public Safety
goals: crush counterrevolution, defeat the foreign powers
Reign of Terror
purpose; crush counterrevolution by weeding out foreign and domestic enemies
Leaders for Reign of Terror
Robespierre, Danton, Carnot
the Republic of Virtue
goal: recognize French society and making its priority the State, de-Christianization
levee en masse
military draft for French army, calling upon all able bodied adult males within age. Creating a citizen army with great Patriotism.
The wage earning class who were angered by price inflation, especially on bread. Wanted fair prices from the revolution and election of a new King by universal male suffrage.
2 house legislation, and 5 member executive board (directors). goals; spread the power, balance as a republic.
Government of Paris who joins forces with the sans-culottes and the mountain party in the radical movement to end the counterrevolution
The Thermidorian Reaction
Moderates return to power, abolish Jacobin clubs and Paris Commune,voters become property owners and soldiers, ending of price controls, constitution of 1795 setting up the board of directors.
Whiff of Grapeshot
Napoleon Bonaparte is brought in to scare the mob who is outsdie the National Convention to speak out about the bread prices. This is his tactic of getting the mob out, leaving around 100 dead and the rest scattering. Shot out of cannons.
stated that 2/3 of the current National Convention must be in the newly elected goverment. This angered the people because it gave them no reason to vote.
1797 Election Scandal
The 2/3's rule was not in place, the group that wins the majority is the constitutional monarchists. The current government nullified the votes so they couldn't take their seats.