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20 Terms related to Genetics Excluding the defenition of Genetics itself

Genetics

The key to understanding what makes each organism unique; the scientific study of heridity

Trait

Specific characteristic of an individual

Gene

Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; is passed from parent to offspring

Allele

One of a number of different forms of a gene; variation of a gene

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles for a particular gene; the same traits

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a particular gene; different traits

Phenotype

Physical characteristics of an organism

Genotype

Genetic make-up of an organism; an expression of the genes that an organism has

Punnett Square

Diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross

Multiple Allele

A gene that has more than two alleles; more than two possible alleles for the trait; gives you many combinations of phenotypes and genotypes

Homologous

Term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent

Principle of Dominance

Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

Gamete

Sex Cell

Fertilization

Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

Independent Assortment

One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for a different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes

Incomplete Dominance

Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele; neither trait is dominant over another one (The characteristics blend or mix.)

Codominance

Situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed; both traits are expressed together

Zygote

Fertilized Egg

Haploid

Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes

Gregor Mendel

An Austrian Monk; Breed and tested pea plants
A single pea plant can prodcue hundreds of offspring therefore it was easier for Mendel to use.

Probability

The likelihood that a particular event will occur.
Example: When flipping a coin there are two possible outcomes...heads or tails.

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