History 8 Final (finished!)

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Topography

The precise detailed study of the surface features of a region

lake

a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land

piedmont

the plateau between the coastal plain and the Appalachian Mountains: parts of Virginia and North and South Carolina and Georgia and Alabama

bay

any inlet of the ocean or sea partly surrounded by land

rural

living in or characteristic of farming or country life

prairie

arge area of level or rolling land with grass but few or no trees

tributary

a small river or stream that flows into a larger body of water

flood plain

flat land near the edges of rivers formed by mud and slit deposited by floods

harbor

A sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo

geography

The study of the earth and everything on it

class system

A system in which society is divided into different social groups

salutary neglect

A hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s

Pontiac's Rebellion

Native American revolt against the British colonies

social mobility

the movement of people or groups from one class to another

literacy

the ability to read and write

Enlightenment

a movement during the 1700s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society

rule of law

no one is above the law

Proclamation of 1763

British declaraton that forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachians

Albany Plan of Union

The first proposal to unite the colonies

The Treaty of Paris 1763

This officially ended the French and Indian War in 1763

pact

a formal agreement or bargain

natural rights

The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

The Great Awakening

A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730's and 1740's

Magna Carta

This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government

divine right

the belief that a ruler's authority come directly from God

The great Enlightenment thinker, John Locke argued that people have

certain rights that governments must protect

John Locke

English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property

Proclamation of 1763

This forbade the colonists from settling on lands west of the Appalachian Mountains

How did the Enlightenment influence American colonists?

It introduced ideas of natural rights and government by consent

Which of the following was a provision of the Magna Carta?

Taxation was prohibited, unless it was agreed to by a council

What was a reaction to Pontiac's Rebellion?

Proclamation of 1763

British officers brutal plan to end Pontiac's rebellion involved

giving small pox infected blankets to the Natives

How was life in the "New World" unlike life in Europe?

The class system was based on achievement rather than birth

What is one individual right the English Bill of Rights protects?

the right to free elections

What was NOT true of the French and Indian War?

It began after the French aided Pontiac's Rebellion against the English

Mississippi River

Which river was a major obstacle to westward expansion

What two elements gave English colonial farmers a chance to prosper?

cheap farmland and plentiful natural resources

How did competition between the French and British in the Ohio River Valley lead to war?

Both the French and the British established trade agreements with the Natives in the Ohio River Valley

What was the main reason for the New England colonists' insistence that their children learn to read and write?

so that they could understand the Bible

Describe the relationship between the English settlers and the Native Americans

The English saw the Natives as a threat to their land ownership and control

English laws that affected the colonists were made by

Parliament

Was a result of the Great Awakening

African Americans were invited into churches

George Whitefield

The minister who drew thousands with his sermons and raised funds to start a home for orphans

Benjamin Franklin

Famous American Enlightenment figure who conducted scientific experiments to discover the laws of nature

One result of the Glorious Revolution was that the New England colonists

could once again elect assemblies

Which of the following most accurately describes the CAUSE of the French and Indian War?

French and English settlers both claimed the same land in the Ohio River Valley

Pontiac's Rebellion

The Proclamation of 1763 was issued to avoid future conflicts such as this

What did France lose under the Treaty or Paris 1763

power in North America

Why could a higher percentage of people vote in America than in England?

there were more landowners

The turning point of the French and Indian War came in 1757 when

General James Wolfe captured Quebec

Which of the following best describes the New England Region of Colonial America?

Short-growing seasons, rocky soil, good harbors

The first step toward guaranteeing the rights of English nobles and freemen

the Magna Carta

Largest mountain range in North America

Rockies

The first attempt to unite the colonies in times of crisis was proposed in

the Albany Plan of Union

What caused problems between the colonial settlers and the Native Americans?

Increased English settlement caused conflict over land ownership

the headwater of the Mississippi

Lake Itasca

The right of freedom of the press in the colonies was established by the trial of

John Peter Zenger

Sugar Act

Imposed a duty on sugar and molasses

Currency Act

forbade the colonies from printing their own money

Stamp Act

colonists had to pay a special tax on paper goods and legal documents

What did NOT lead to the Battle of Bunker Hill?

The Americans declare Independence from Britain

How many grievances are listed in the Declaration?

27

speculate

to buy as an investment

Which colonial right was threatened by the Intolerable Acts?

Right of the elected colonial assembly to meet

Intolerable Acts

imposed as a direct result of the Boston Tea Party

tributary

a small river or stream that flows into a larger body of water

Justice Act

Allowed British officials accused of a colonial crime to be tried in Britain instead of the American colonies

Siege

when enemy forces surround a town or city in order to force it to surrender

Boycott

refusal to buy

Revenue

income

Why was New England a hotbed of political protest?

The Puritan legacy influenced the inhabitants of the New England area

a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land

lake

What reason does the Preamble give for the writing of the Declaration of Independence?

Its states the necessity of breaking from Britain

On March 5th, 1770 during the Boston Massacre,

Crispus Attucks became the first casualty of the American Revolution.

Propaganda

information put out to promote a certain point of view

geography

the study of the earth and everything on it

Writs of Assistance granted under the Townshend Acts

made British officials above the law

The shot heard round the world took place at

Lexington

What was not a belief expressed by Thomas Paine in Common Sense?

All men have the right to be represented before being taxed

Tea Act

gave the king's British East India Company a monopoly in the colonies

Townshend Acts

a tax on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea

Sons of Liberty

A secret society that opposed British policies

duty

taxes placed on imported goods

Loyalists

Americans who supported the British

militia

a force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community

artillery

canon and large gun

Why did Parliament impose new laws on the colonies following the French and Indian War?

Britain needed money to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and to help cover the cost of protecting the colonists

What best describes the Middle Colonial Region?

diverse

Quartering Acts

Forced the colonists to house and clothe British troops

salutary neglect

British practice to ignore their colonies

Why could a higher percentage of people vote in America than in England?

There were more landowners

What was accomplished at the meeting of the First Continental Congress?

They voted to ban trade with Britain till the Acts were repealed

Proclamation of 1763

Forbade colonial settlement west of the Appalachians

What was a method the colonists used to get Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act?

The colonists established the Stamp Act Congress.

The purpose of the Declaratory Act was to

affirm Parliament's right to pass laws pertaining to the colonies.

What was NOT part of the Intolerable Acts?

disbanded the Virginia Assembly

Why did the colonists disagree with the passage of new laws by Parliament?

They opposed the passage of any law without representation in Parliament

Which of the following statements best defines the teachers role in your success this year in History class

The teacher is not responsible for my success, I am

After the Boston Massacre, John Adams agreed to defend the British troops accused of murder because

he believed that all men deserved a fair trial

These colonial groups helped unite the colonies by spreading word through letter writing

Committees of Correspondence

On which river is our nation's capital located on?

Potomac

Patriots

Colonists who supported the American Revolution

In drafting the Constitution, larger and smaller states argued over

representation in legislature

Framer

a creator of the Constitution

Is the quote, "I think this new plan will provide a good balance of power." from a federalist or antifederalist

federalist

What was a domestic problem faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation?

Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts

Is the quote, "What Americans need is a bill of rights, and this new government will not get my approval until we have one." from a federalist or antifederalist

antifederalist

How was the issue of slavery addressed in the Northwest Ordinance?

It was outlawed

Several Southern delegates threatened that if the Constitution included an immediate ban on slavery, they would

"never accept the plan."

Republic

A political system in which people elect representatives to govern for them

In 1784, the lower Mississippi was closed to U.S. shipping by

Spain

The Articles of Confederation...

created a weak federal government and gave supreme power to the states

Checks and Balances

The ability for each branch of government to exercise control over the others

Federalism

Share power between states and the national government

The states without Western land claims refused to sign the Articles of Confederation because

states with Western lands might become overwhelmingly powerful

Interprets law

judicial

Makes law

legislative

Why did Parliament impose new laws on the colonies following the French and Indian War?

Britain needed money to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and to help cover the cost of protecting the colonists

The Land Ordinance of 1785

divided the land in the Northwest Territory into townships

Delegates from the smaller states strongly objected to the Virginia Plan because

small states would have very few representatives in Congress

Is the quote, "It's obvious that the Articles weren't working, and I think this new plan reflects a careful compromise among a variety of opinions." a federalist or antifederalist

federalist

Antifederalists, such as Patrick Henry, feared that

the federal government would be too strong and may abuse the states

Why did Americans want to create different branches within the government?

To prevent any branch from having power over another branch

Three-fifths Compromise

compromise that resolved the problem of how slaves would be counted for representation and taxation in the new government

Is the quote, "I think it is important for people to realize that the large size and diversity of the United States will make it impossible for any single group to form a majority that could dominate the government." from a federalist or antifederalist

federalist

Under the Articles of Confederation, who would run our national government?

the Congress

ratification

official approval

One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Spain was:

Spain closed the Mississippi to American trade

What was the main goal of American leaders as they established their first government?

to prevent tyranny

levy

to impose a tax

Is the quote, "I think those delegates exceeded their authority in creating a whole new government. They were just supposed to work on the Articles a bit." from a federalist or antifederalist

antifederalist

Were a group of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay in support of ratification of the Constitution

The Federalist Papers

Wasn't true about the Virginia Plan:

It established a unicameral legislature

One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Britain was:

Britain stayed in their forts in the Great Lakes region

Rural

living in or characteristic of farming or country life

Which of the following powers was denied the national government under the Articles of Confederation?

Collect taxes

To formally approve

ratification

Why did the colonists disagree with the passage of new laws by Parliament?

They opposed the passage of any law without representation in Parliament

relating to, from, or located in a country or countries other than your own

foreign

Which of the following powers was granted the national government under the Articles of Confederation?

control Indian affairs

Amendment

addition to a document

Which of the following was a domestic problem faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation?

Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts

Under the Articles of Confederation, who would run our national government?

the Congress

One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Spain was:

Spain closed the Mississippi to American trade

What was the main goal of American leaders as they established their first government?

to prevent tyranny

One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Britain was:

Britain stayed in their forts in the Great Lakes region

Which of the following powers was denied the national government under the Articles of Confederation?

collect taxes

Which of the following powers was granted the national government under the Articles of Confederation?

control Indian affairs

Based on Washington's view of political differences, what would his opinion of political parties be?

Political parties would divide America

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