A man part of the NAACP who became the first African- American supreme court justice and who also led the attorneys who challanged the segregation laws which were made in the 1950's about segregation in public schools in several states. He played a big part in the Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka cases
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
what the hearings of the segregation challenges in public schools in the early 1950's (1954)in Topeka, Kansas became know as. Chief Earl Justice Warren, the head of the case said that public schools need to desegregate because separate education facilities were very unequal. The court officly stated in 1955 that all public schools need to do so. This did not workout well in, though,especially in the south for many years. These decisions overturned Plessy v. Fergeson with the separate but equal theory.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
a major protest in Montgomery Alabama following Rosa Parks arrest for refusing to give up her seat. After the news of her arrest spread members of her church became angry and told everyone (every African American ) to stay of the busses that Monday and protest of the arrest and trial.This lasted for many months and was a very successful example of a powerful Civil Rights protest.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
a 26 year old baptist minister from Atlanta,GA, who spoke to NAACP leaders at their nearing of whether or not to continue the boycott (bus). He was successful in this speech and because of this the boycott went on for 13 months. He is best well know for his "I have a dream" speech at the March on Washington. As he became more and more well know he started to become a target of threats, and because of this he was assinated on April, 4, 1968 in Memphis,TN.
the southern Christian Leadership Conference, who coordinated Civil Rights protests across the south. This group was founded because of the bus boycott, and were black clergy, who ran African- American churches.
Little Rock Arkansas Central High Nine
a group of nine brave high school girls and boys went to attend Central High School, which was an all white school. On the first day of school the governor of AK sent in the National Guard to keep them out. All of the students except Elizabeth Eckford knew not to come because the were warned by phone, but Elizabeth's family did not have one. President Eisenhower warned the governor to let the students in after this happened, but he did not listen so Eisenhower took control of the National Guard and let the students in.
a non- violent protest in which people sit in a place and refuse to move until they get what they want. A famous example of this was in Grrensbro, NC in Feb.1960 when group of 4 black college students began one at a lunch counter. These students influenced many others to take place in these all across the south. They were very effective, although many people were hurt and killed by segregationilists. These protests led to the formation of the SNCC.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating committee, who were formed because when the cival rights leaders saw the success of the sit- ins they wanted and supported an organization for young people. Because of this group and the SCLC,the civil rights movement increased pressure for change in the 60's. This group organized many protests also.
protest agiantst segrigation on interstate busing in the south, which were planned by CORE in May 1961. On these rides the whites would sit in the back and the African-Americans would sit in the front of the buses, refusing to move. along the trip the blacks would try to use white facilities. In Selma,Alambama many segriagationists attacked the freedom rides very violently. These rides had major significance , helping to win support for civil rights. They were sucesful in desegrigation , wen the fedral gov. issued an order intregating nterstate bus facilities.
Congrees of Racial Equality, who in May 1961 planned the Freedom Rides to desegragate interstate buses, or buses that travel between states.
March on Washington
a huge civil rights emonstration in Washinton DC. in , whre about 250,000 people came out to build support for civil rights legislation. The high point of the march united many groups that called for passage of civil rights laws.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a law passed in July 1964 by Johnson, which was passedbecause of the nations grief leading to support it, which banned segrigation in public places, such as hotels, restraunts, and theaters. This act along led to mking segriagtion illegal in the US.
an organized voter- registration drive for outhern blacks, organized by the SNCC because African- Americans wanted congress to pass a strong voting acts law. This program brought in Northern Black studnets into Mississippi to work with SNCC organizers. These students saw horrible things while doing work,but still managed to add about 1,200 African Americans to voter registration rools.
Voting Rights Act
a law signed by Johnson on August 6, 1965, that banned literacy tests and other laws that kept blacks from registering to vote. This act was very affective,almost immediatly increasing the # of African Americans who could vote in Selma fro 10 to 60% within weeks.
a program started by Johnson that provided help to the poor, the eldery, and women, and also promoted education, outlawed discirmination , and provided for the enviorment. These programs passed in the Great Society helped our country and many like Medicare, and Medicaid , still exist today, helping many people.
a popular personality originally part of the nation of Islam (brnach of Islam fund in the US) /urged African- Americans to b seperated), who left te group in the mid- 1960's not agreeing with the sepertist ideas. He had a vsion while visiting Mecca (Muslim holy city) that all people would be equal, but he didn't have o much to to talk about it because he was killed by members of Nation of Islam soon after.
a Mexican American who worked as a mirgant laborer with his family in California , who were payed little to nothing. Because of his, he decided to start a unon for farm workers in 1962; and responding to this workers went on strike. He demands led to 26 major California growers signing a contract , which gave workers higher wages. The farm workers struggle ld to te inspiration of many other Mexican- Americans.
National Congress of American Indians
a group of ounded in 1944 to promote "the common welfare" of Native Americans. This led to protests:; and eventually in 1958, led to the changing of the "Termination policy" (ended portection of land nd other assets held by Native American tribes) The sucess of these protets inspired a new generation of Native American activists to fight for their rights.
a women, who described to discrimination, and the problems that women faced around this time; in her 1963 bestselling book , The Feminine Mystique. Her words helped give direction to a movement for Women's Liberation, and in 1966 she helped find the Equal Rights Amendment.
an organization, that Betty Friedan heled find in 1966 with some of its major goals to help women get jobs, and help them get equal pay (same as men) for their work. These womens group led to congress passing the ERA in 1972.
an amendment passed in 1972 in response to Women's groups.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
more agressive than other organizations in demanding rights for peole on reservations and greater recignition of tribal laws. In 1972 this group occupied Washngton DC for 7 days. One of the leaders of this group was Russel Means.
women fighting and demanding for rights equal to mens.
misused to help keep poor blacks from voting
Equal Employment Opportunity Commision
Part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which was made to prevent job discrimination
Voter Registration Drives
Giving everyone the right to vote. African Africans started to get the right to vote around this time.