Semester Test Fall 2011

96 terms by jdoppster Teacher

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There will be an increase in the number of coyotes and hawks.

How is this ecosystem most likely to be affected by a large increase in the number of rats?

cacti and sagebrush

Who are the producers in this food web?

ants, rats, and coyotes

Who are the primary consumers in this food web?

tarantulas, snakes, coyotes, and hawks

Who are the secondary consumers in this food web?

hawks and coyotes

Who are the tertiary consumers in this food web?

snake and hawk

In this energy pyramid what two organisms should be switched?

yes

Is this energy pyramid drawn and labeled correctly?

no

Is this energy pyramid drawn and labeled correctly?

snake, cricket, and large fish

In this energy pyramid what organisms are in the wrong energy level?

10%

When energy is passing through a food web, some of the energy is lost. How much of the energy is passed from one level to the next?

plants

In the diagram which organisms perform photosynthesis?

It is transformed into chemical energy.

What happens to the solar energy absorbed by plants during photosynthesis?

oxygen and water

What two terms should be switched in the picture of photosynthesis above?

yes

The picture above shows how plants perform photosynthesis. Is it correct?

oxygen and glucose, carbon dioxide and water

In the picture of photosynthesis above __________ and __________ should be switched with __________ and __________.

radiant energy

What kind of energy is necessary to initiate the process of photosynthesis?

recycling

The annual goal of the Preservation Middle School Environmental Club is to reduce the amount of solid waste it contributes to the landfill by collecting and composting food waste from the school cafeteria. Students then collect humus from the compost bins and add it to the planters in the school courtyard. This composting is a form of __________.

Wolves prey on older moose.

Michigan's Isle Royale is a small island in the northwestern part of Lake Superior, which is home to a few thousand moose and 20-50 wolves. Wildlife scientists have studied the island's food chains for years. During the 1980's, scientists noticed that as the old moose population increased, the number of wolves increased, and as the numbers of old moose decreased, the number of wolves decreased.
What can be concluded from this passage?

Matter is recycled through decay.

Leftover food can be put into compost bins, and after a few weeks turns into soil. What is occurring in the compost bins?

They release stored energy and nutrients from dead organisms into the ecosystem.

Mushrooms and bacteria serve an important role in an ecosystem, that of the decomposer. Decomposers break down the organic material of once living organisms, such as carbon and nitrogen. Why are decomposers important to the ecosystem?

Some of the energy is released as heat.

Compost bins are containers where items such as food scraps, paper, and yard trimmings are combined with water and air, and are allowed to break down and decompose. This produces a nutrient rich product that can be used for fertilizer. What happens to the energy from these materials as they decompose?

C

In the picture above which letter shows the correct order of a food chain, food web, or energy pyramid?

solar, photosynthesis

Essentially, biomass is stored __________ energy that man can convert to electricity, fuel, and heat. Through __________ the energy from the Sun is stored in the plant material.

wait for teacher directions

You enter the classroom and your teacher tells you to stand on one side of the room. You see on your laboratory table a laboratory procedure, a glass, beaker with blue liquid in it, a pipette, glass graduated cylinder, petri dish, leaves, and goggles.
What is the first thing you should do?

I, II, III, & IV

In the picture above what is a safety risk for your eyes, and would be a reason for having to wear goggles?

microscope, microscope slides, notebook

After observing a compost bin, a student wanted to investigate what microscopic organisms were living in it. What equipment would be needed to view the microscopic animals?

teeth tearing off a bite of pizza

Jane eats a slice of pizza for dinner. What represents a physical change in the pizza?

substances in the mouth and stomach breaking down fats and proteins

Which step in the digestive process represents a chemical change in food?

reaction of saliva, stomach acid, bile, and pancreatic juices with food

Which list includes only chemical changes that occur in the digestive process?

break down large molecules into smaller molecules

Which function is performed primarily by the digestive system?

sugars

Carbohydrates are large, complex molecules that can be broken down into smaller molecules called __________.

chemical to thermal

Animals are consumers, meaning they need to eat food for energy, because they cannot make their own. What energy transformation is taking place when an animal eats food so they can keep warm?

Area 2, because it has the element carbon.

Scientists found four areas around a hydrothermal vent that they thought could support life. The scientists took samples of the elements in the area. Based on the table above, which area would have the best chance at having organic compounds?

chemical to chemical

When a person eats too much food, they store the extra energy as fat. What type of energy conversion is going on in the body as energy from food is turned into fat?

carbon

Which element is found in abundance in the human body, but is not found in abundance in the Earth?

oxygen

Which element is found in abundance, both in the human body and in the Earth?

Reacting of food with hydrochloric acid
Interaction of food with bile

Which digestive processes in the picture above belongs in the left hand circle of the Venn diagram?

Chewing and mixing of food with saliva

Which digestive process in the picture above will be found in the middle of the Venn diagram?

beaker, tongs, hot plate, and water

Benedict's solution is used to test for simple sugars. The clear blue solution was discovered by American chemist Stanley Benedict. When Benedict's solution is added to a liquid and heated, the solution will change to green, yellow, or brick-red depending on the amount of sugar and length of time the solution was heated. If no sugar is present, the solution remains clear blue.
What equipment is necessary when testing for the presence of sugar?

H

Benedict's solution is used to test for simple sugars. The clear blue solution was discovered by American chemist Stanley Benedict. When Benedict's solution is added to a liquid and heated, the solution will change to green, yellow, or brick-red depending on the amount of sugar and length of time the solution was heated. If no sugar is present, the solution remains clear blue.
What is the most important safety precaution (from the picture above) that should be observed when testing for the presence of sugar?

burning wood in a campfire

Magnesium (Mg) is a silvery white metal and is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is also the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body, essential for healthy nerve and bone functioning. Magnesium oxide (MgO) has many uses. It is used in medicines for heartburn relief, in fireworks and fertilizers, and is added to concrete to absorb moisture.
Hayden's teacher produced a small amount of magnesium oxide during a classroom demonstration by attaching a thin strip of magnesium ribbon to a ring stand and igniting the ribbon with a lighter. She did not look at the intense bright light to avoid possible eye damage from the ultraviolet light. After several seconds, the magnesium strip burned through the entire length, leaving a white powdery substance behind.
The chemical change in this demonstration is most similar to __________.

safety goggles

Magnesium (Mg) is a silvery white metal and is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is also the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body, essential for healthy nerve and bone functioning. Magnesium oxide (MgO) has many uses. It is used in medicines for heartburn relief, in fireworks and fertilizers, and is added to concrete to absorb moisture.
Hayden's teacher produced a small amount of magnesium oxide during a classroom demonstration by attaching a thin strip of magnesium ribbon to a ring stand and igniting the ribbon with a lighter. She did not look at the intense bright light to avoid possible eye damage from the ultraviolet light. After several seconds, the magnesium strip burned through the entire length, leaving a white powdery substance behind.
What laboratory equipment is essential for this demonstration?

Magnesium is flammable and produces an extremely bright light when ignited.

Magnesium (Mg) is a silvery white metal and is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is also the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body, essential for healthy nerve and bone functioning. Magnesium oxide (MgO) has many uses. It is used in medicines for heartburn relief, in fireworks and fertilizers, and is added to concrete to absorb moisture.
Hayden's teacher produced a small amount of magnesium oxide during a classroom demonstration by attaching a thin strip of magnesium ribbon to a ring stand and igniting the ribbon with a lighter. She did not look at the intense bright light to avoid possible eye damage from the ultraviolet light. After several seconds, the magnesium strip burned through the entire length, leaving a white powdery substance behind.
Which properties of magnesium make it desirable for use in fireworks?

liver

Above is a model of the digestive system. The parts of the digestive system that are involved in the mechanical and chemical digestion and movement of food are the mouth, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, small intestine, pancreas, large intestine, and rectum. This model of the digestive system is missing one of its organs for digestion. Which organ is it missing?

mouth, teeth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum

The parts of the digestive system that are involved in the mechanical and chemical digestion and movement of food are the mouth, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, small intestine, pancreas, large intestine, and rectum.
Which parts of the digestive system are involved in breaking down food mechanically?

mouth, salivary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas,and gall bladder

The parts of the digestive system that are involved in the mechanical and chemical digestion and movement of food are the mouth, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, small intestine, pancreas, large intestine, and rectum.
Which parts of the digestive system are involved in breaking down food chemically?

mouth and stomach

The parts of the digestive system that are involved in the mechanical and chemical digestion and movement of food are the mouth, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, small intestine, pancreas, large intestine, and rectum.
Which parts of the digestive system are involved in breaking down food mechanically and chemically?

D

In the picture above identify the situation in which no work is being done.

When you turn a page in the science book

If you are reading a science book when do you do work on the book?

an object remains stationary, it does not move

What evidence proves that no work is being done on an object?

chemical, mechanical, thermal

Energy stored in foods is __________; movement energy is __________; and __________ energy is heat.

batter stands with his bat in the air

A batter walks up to home plate with his bat, stands with his bat in the air, swings his bat, and makes contact with the ball. In which part of this situation is no work occurring?

8 Nm

How much work is done if a 2 N box is moved 4 m?
Work = Force x Distance, or W=Fd

gravity

In a germinating seed, the downward growth of roots and upward growth of leaves and stems are the plant's responses to __________.

lack of turgor pressure

What caused the plant's behavior?

graduated cylinder

A student needs to measure 9.75 mL of a liquid for an investigation. What measuring device should the student use for the most accurate measurement?

triple beam balance

What instrument is best for measuring the mass of an object?

the man using the short ramp

In the diagram above, who is doing more work to move the barrel into the truck?

the man using the short ramp

In the diagram above, who has to use more force to move the barrel in the truck?

ramp, spring scale, and 1 kg mass

Your teacher has asked you to set up an experiment on how the angle of a ramp affects the amount of force needed to move a 1 kg object.
From the picture above which pieces of equipment would you use for the experiment?

goggles

Your teacher has asked you to set up an experiment on how the angle of a ramp affects the amount of force needed to move a 1 kg object.
What piece of safety equipment should be used for this experiment?

C

Your teacher has asked you to set up an experiment on how the angle of a ramp affects the amount of force needed to move a 1 kg object.
Which of table in the picture above should be used to collect data?

The algae upset the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the water causing fish to die.

In an agricultural area, a heavy rainfall caused a flash flood. The topsoil from a freshly fertilized field washed into a local stream. As a result, the amount of nitrogen in the water drastically increased causing the algae to grow to record levels, and the algae covered the surface of the stream. What effect did this bloom of algae have on the stream?

The lava from the volcano will heat up the air in the local area and kill all life in the area.

If a large volcano that is on an island erupts, it will impact the local ecosystem. What is one way in which the volcano will not affect the local ecosystem?

In cold, wet weather, any water that seeped into the concrete would freeze and cause the birdbath to crack.

Karen has a birdbath made of poured concrete. When she bought it, the salesman suggested that she seal the surface with a watertight solution. Why was this suggestion made?

Rolling Plains

Which ecoregion of Texas is most likely to be most affected by wind erosion?

water testing kit, hand lens, notebook

What sets of equipment can be used to analyze the effects of human activity on a watershed?

ecoregions

The state of Texas can be divided into geographically similar areas defined by climate and animal and plant species that stay relatively within the same area. These large geographical sections of land are called __________.

water erosion from a fork of the Red River

Palo Duro Canyon, often called the Grand Canyon of Texas, is located in the Panhandle. The steep walls and deep caves of the canyon were most likely carved by...

II

The diagram above illustrates the contamination of a river by a municipal waste treatment plant. What is the original point of contamination?

IV

Which point on the map represents the affected area that is the greatest distance from the waste treatment plant?

shows water flow; does not show topography

Using the model above, fill in the following analogy.
advantage : __________ :: limitation : __________
or
advantage is to __________ as limitation is to __________

The wildebeest would struggle to find food because of a lack of rainfall, which would cause a decrease in plant growth. They would have to migrate to places where there is water to drink and grasses to eat.

Wildebeest are cow-like animals with horns. They migrate in herds across Africa in search of the grasses they feed on. Wildebeests are prey for lions. How would the wildebeests population be impacted by a drought?

The stream will become wider.
There will be more water in the stream.
Wildlife will decrease.

A small stream runs through the center of a residential neighborhood. Water enters the stream from a series of storm drains in the area. For many years, the shape of the streambed, the amount of water, and the species of wildlife have remained stable; however there has been an increase in building in the area. New homes, new streets, and new storm drains have impacted the area. How will the changes to the environment have an effect on the stream and the wildlife?

The coastline can be flooded by large waves.
The saltwater can kill off plant life and drown animals.
The wind speed from the hurricane can knock over plant life, destroying habitats.
The rain can cause flooding inland.

The Texas coast is frequently hit by hurricanes. How do hurricanes impact Texas ecosystems?

fertilizer

In the chart above, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, groundwater contamination in most states most likely originates from __________.

the effects of running water on different kinds of rock

Janie gathered 4 different kinds of rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) and 4 trays. She tilted the trays, put a rock sample on the top of each tray and used a pump to force water continuously through a tube over the rocks for four days (96 hours). She checked each rock sample after each day.
What is the purpose of Janie's investigation?

a sculptor deciding what kind of rock to use for a monument

Janie gathered 4 different kinds of rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) and 4 trays. She tilted the trays, put a rock sample on the top of each tray and used a pump to force water continuously through a tube over the rocks for four days (96 hours). She checked each rock sample after each day.
Who will the results of Janie's investigation will be useful to?

After each day, pour the water through a filter and collect the rock particles. Measure the rock particles.

Janie gathered 4 different kinds of rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) and 4 trays. She tilted the trays, put a rock sample on the top of each tray and used a pump to force water continuously through a tube over the rocks for four days (96 hours). She checked each rock sample after each day.
What is the best way for Janie to determine the mass of each sample?

D

Janie gathered 4 different kinds of rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) and 4 trays. She tilted the trays, put a rock sample on the top of each tray and used a pump to force water continuously through a tube over the rocks for four days (96 hours). She checked each rock sample after each day.
After Janie determined the mass of each rock sample, which data table should she use to record her data?

gypsum

During an experiment, Janie found that limestone was the rock most effected by mechanical weathering. Janie asked her teacher what mineral limestone was made from, and her teacher said she did not know for sure. She said she thought it was one of the following: calcite, fluorite, orthoclase, or quartz. Which of the minerals could Janie infer limestone is made from?

to estimate distance, travel time, and fuel costs

How can a model of the solar system be used in planning a trip from Earth to another planet?

number of planets

This model has three limitations: the size of the planets and Sun, and the distance between the planets. What is not a limitation to this model?

Kepler

Who developed the laws of planetary motion which laid the foundation for the future of space travel?

the amount of physical stress on bones decreases, resulting in bone deterioration

How does microgravity effect the bone health of an astronaut?

the load of the backpack is lightened by water, allowing astronauts to more easily practice space tasks

Why do astronauts wear spacesuits in swimming pools before participating in manned space explorations?

regulate temperature

The insulated feature of space suit layers are designed to...

provides pure oxygen for inhaling and canisters to collect carbon dioxide

How does the space suit backpack help astronauts breathe in a space environment?

forces blood to certain parts of the body to counteract the absence of gravity

How does pressure in the astronaut's space suit help the body work?

too cold

Why would planet "E" not be a good place for life?

planet D

In the picture above what would be the best planet to observe for life?

Reason #1: to master all aspects of in-flight operating procedures by crew and ground support.
Reason #2: to familiarize crew members with emergency escape procedures.
Reason #3: to guarantee maximum safety and mission success, and to save the expense of an actual mission.

Scientists use full scale mock-ups of space shuttles and the International Space Station before undertaking actual space missions. Give one reason why they would do this.

discovery of gravity

What work of Sir Isaac Newton helped others to understand and overcome the obstacles of modern space travel?

One: it shields Earth from collisions
Two: it offers protection from solar radiation
Three: it maintains a constant temperature

What is one way in which the atmosphere of Earth makes the existence of life possible?

microgravity

The floating sensation astronauts experience while in a space environment is called __________.

to use the gravitational pull of the other planets to slingshot the probe so it picks up speed on its way to the designated planet or moon.

When NASA sends probes to distant planets they will normally go to another planet first, even though the probe will not collect any data from the first planet. Why do they do this?

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