A contemporary psychologist who developed a theory about how people deal with moral questions
Who was Lawrence Kohlberg?
6 stages, which fall into 3 categories
What does Kohlberg's theory consist of?
How many studies did Kohlberg do?
1958, 1963, and 1970
In what years did Kohlberg's studies take place?
72 boys, ages 10, 13, 16
Who was involved in Kohlberg's 1958 study?
gave them a dilemma to solve and how they solved it
How did Kohlberg decide what stage someone fell into?
younger children, delinquents, boys and girls from across the world
Who was involved in Kohlberg's 1963 and 1970 studies?
What was the dilemma called that Kohlberg used?
A woman is suffering from a rare form of cancer, and she needs a special drug that costs more money than her husband can afford, so her husband broke into the druggist's store to get the drug
What was the Heinz dilemma (short description)?
everyone has to go through these stages, can't move back or jump stages, but you can get "stuck" in stages
What are the stipulations for Kohlberg's six stages?
Obedience and Punishment
What is stage 1?
What is level 1?
In stage 1, what determines goodness or badness?
a fear of authority and being motivated by the avoidance of punishment
What characterizes stage 1?
What is stage 2?
I'll scratch your back if you scratch mine
What characterizes personal usefulness?
Yes, but only if they gain something from it
Do people in stage 2 occasionally do things helpful for others?
What is level 2?
Conforming to the Will of the group
What is stage 3?
Rules and whether they exist or not
What becomes important in stage 3?
trying to be a good person to meet the expectations of others; peer pressure
What characterizes stage 3?
Law and Order
What is stage 4?
Stage 4, Law and Order
What stage are most Americans in?
breaking a law
What is immorality to someone in stage 4?
laws must be followed. if they are bad, they must be changed
What characterizes stage 4?
What is Level 3?
What is stage 5?
What philosophy comes out of stage 5?
The world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values, utilitarianism
What characterizes stage 5?
Universal Ethical Principle
What is stage 6?
they are valid as long as they are grounded in justice
What is a person in stage 6's view of laws?
8 years old
What is the age of reason?
No because someone can get stuck in a stage
Does chronological age relate to the moral stages?
external formation (needs to be taught)
What does mature conscience need?
the obligation to do good and avoid evil
What is the root dictate of conscience?
it interferes with what we want to do and can create tension
What is the problem with law?
it works against the good of society
What is the problem with individual liberty?
it denies personal basic rights
What is the problem with the good of society?
no need to follow rules you didn't have a say in, rules restrict freedom
What are some reasons for rebellion?
No, it is a vital and necessary part of growing from the dependence of childhood to the independence of adulthood
Is rebellion always bad?
Recognize and understand the human thrust for independence in each of us, Respect the rights and duties of others, Accept the role of law in a stable society, and Accept the need for creative responsibility in any moral decision-making process
What are 4 solutions for the tension that laws create?