Chapter 19: America's Worker's Life and Labor 1870-1890

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American Promise, AP U.S. History

Great Railroad Strike 1877

large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men

Third world

developing countries

Buckwheats

.boys just off the farm

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act

Congress banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. In 1892 congress extended law for 10 more years. In 1902 Chinese immigration restricted indefinitely and not repealed until 1943.

Depression of 1873

Brought on by over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen during the immediate postwar boom, the Panic was triggered by economic downturns in Europe and by the failure of Jay Cooke's bank.

Depression of 1893

Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.

child labor

Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.

Blacklists

lists of individuals whose loyalty was suspicious

Yellow Dog Contracts

A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.

Baseball

started in the 1870s. United people across city lines. Cheap and people could go there on their day off.

Coney Island

created as a way for working-class people to temporarily escape the hardships of the working, Coney Island became an amusement park with rides and attractions that contrasted the grim realities many were living. Significiance: shows how grim the lives of working class citizens were that they need such an elaborate amusement built to take their minds off their troubles

Samuel Gompers

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

American Federation of Labor

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

Socialists

Group that believed nation's resources and industries should be owned and operated by the government on behalf of the people

Anarchists

people who oppose organized government

Women workers and their jobs

Typical textile worker was a young unmarried woman. Sometimes made extra money by getting a boarder to stay in the house. Educated women became secretaries and typed on typewriters.

Cult of Domesticity

the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house

Shanty Towns

Also known as Hoovervilles. Those with no home or work would create small town like areas of trash, boxes, boards, etc. Many were later burned out by the police force.

Company Towns

areas including houses, stores and servies built and controlled by a company

Pullman

He not only built the first passenger cars for trains, he built a city around the industrial sites where they were made.

Scrip

money that you got paid by the company you were working for to use at the company store

Knights of Labor

one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories

Organized Trade

trade within a culture and other cultures through accepted nouns

Labor Unions

Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.

Haymarket Riot

100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.

John Bonfield

hicago's police captain, was known for his physical response to agitators. His self-proclaimed slogan was, "The club today saves the bullet tomorrow." Bonfield's men were responsible for the deaths of the two workers at the McCormick factory on May 3. At the Haymarket rally, Bonfield led 180 policemen in to disperse the assembly and demanded that Samuel Fielden stop his speech and step down. It was moments later that an unknown person threw a bomb into the ranks of policemen, sparking a deadly melee.

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