Western Civilization Midterm

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102 terms

Writing, cities, arts and architecture, public works, job specialization, well-organized central government, complex religion, and social classes.

The 8 points of a civilization

Because they had a hard life.

Why did the Sumerians have a dark view on the afterlife?

barter

What system of exchange was used in place of money?

bread and beer

What was the primary food and drink?

July to September

During what months did the Nile River flood?

theocratic

Political and religious functions combined.

The climate preserved the artifacts

How did Egyptian artifacts survive for thousands of years?

Rosetta Stone

The discovery of this occurred in 1799, which had hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek writing, and became the key to understanding hieroglyphics.

Lower Egypt

where delta meets sea river is lowest (actually in north)

Upper Egypt

in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.Upper- in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.

King Menes

he was the first king of Egypt and united upper and lower Egypt and established the first dynasty.

King David

Who united the feuding Israelite tribes into a single nation?

Empire

land ruled by a single authority.

Delta

traingular area of Marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers

Mummification

the preservation of the dead

Ziggurat

A pyramid shaped temple built by the Sumerians.

Satrap

Governor of a province of the Persian empire

Monotheistic

teaching a belief in one god

Hatshepsut

Egyptian Queen who encouraged trade with lands along the eastern Mediterranean

Ramses II

Pharaoh who spread Egyptian rule northward to Syria and conquered Nubia

Hammurabi

Ruler who published a code of laws to help unite Babylonia

Darius

Ruler who united the Persian empire

Nebuchadnezzar

King who encouraged Babylonian learning

Nile

Which geographic feature had the greatest incluence on Egypt?

the Nubians were a part of Egyptian culture

Why does Egyptian art often feature people from Nubia?

Farmers

Most Egyptians were members of which group?

exchange of ideas

the movement of people across the Fertile Crescant resulted in the:

they saw their rulers as the gods' chief servants

How did the Sumerians differ from the Egyptians in the way they viewed their rulers?

Phoenicians

Middle Eastern civilization was spread throughout the Mieditteranean by these people

Grain was grown along the Nile

What information supports the claim that egypt was the 'breadbasket of the world'?

gold

What valuable resource was mined in Nubia?

Pyramids

What was an accomplishment in the Old Kingdom?

Irrigation systems and drainage projects

What were two accomplisments in the Middle Kingd om?

Strong rulers

what was an accomplishment in the New Kingdom?

alphabet, hieroglyphics, wagon wheel

What were 3 advances in technology and learning made by the peoples of the ancient Middle East?

cultural diffusion. land became more fertile, cities were built.

why did the Fertile Crescent become the crossroads of civilization?

democracy

what is a government in which the people hold the power?

archimedes

who applied the priincepals of physics to make practical inventions and mastered the use of the lever and pulley>

aristocracy

what is a govnernment headed by a priveledged minority or upper class called?

monarchy

what is a government called where a king/queen exercises central power?

Pythagoras

who derived a formula to calculate the sides between a right triangle?

strait

what are narrow water passageways called?

Homer

who was the blind poet who wandered through villages and sang of heroic deeds? wrote the iliad and the odyessey

Sophocles

Who was one of the greatest Athenian playrights who wrote Antigone and also survived the horrors of the Peloponnesian war?

Aristotle

Who was Alexander the Great's tutor? he was Plato's most famous student and set up the Lyceum.

Solon

Who was the wise and trusted leader who was appointed archon in 594 BC and outlawed debt slavery, granted citizenship to some foreigners and gave the Athenian assemble more say in decisions? introduced many reforms

Cleisthenes

Who was the reformer who broadaned the role of ordinary citizens in government?

Leonidas

Who led a small Spartan force to guard the small mountain pass at Thermoplylae and held out heroically against the massive persian force? he was king of sparta

Pericles

Who caused the economy to thrive and the government to become more democratic? a statesman who established direct democracy in Athens

Plato

Who was Socrate's student, fled Athens for 10 years, set up the Academy and wrote the republic?

Socrates

who was an outspoken critic of the Sophists, and Athenian stoneman and philosopher and confucted the 'socratic method'?

Hippocrates

Who was the Greek physician whose oath set ethical standards for doctors? he studied the causes of illness and looked for cures.

Acropolis

what is a high city called?

Polis

What is the Greek's unique version of the city state called/

Troy

Wgar city controlled the vital straits that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas and held the Trojan war?

Marathon

What is the place north of athens called?

Themistocles

Who was the greek leader who urged Athenians to build many warships and prepare other defenses if the Persian were to attack again?

Delian League

what was the alliance with other greek city states called?

Peloponnesian war

which war lasted 27 years and ended Athenian domination of the Greek world?

Aspasia

Who was the educated, foreign born woman who worked with perciles to turn Athens into the cultural center of Greece?

Athen's interference with Persian affairs

why did the Persian war begin?

Knossos

what place did the rulers of the trading empire live in? capital of Crete

Heinrich Schliemann

Who was the wealthy German businessman who found evidence in Troy that the Trojan war was real and not a myth?

Tyrant

Who was a ruler who gained power by force in ancient Greece?

Zeus

Who was the most powerful greek Olympian

legislature

what is a lawmaking body called?

rhetoric

art of skillful speaking

Oligarchy

a form of government controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class

soldiers

From childhood, Sprtan boys were trained to be these

Pericles

Athens enjoyed a golden age under the leadership of this person

Peloponnesian war

conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in this

rule by a strong virtuous leader

according to Aristotle, the best government was:

reflected concern with form and order

Which description applies to the words of Greek artists and architects?

Alexander

Who established an empire that extended from Greece to Egypt and India?

Athens

Following the Persian wars, Greece was dominated by:

religious festivals

greek theater evolved out of these

the spread of Greek culture

Alexanders' greatest achievement was this

Monarchy

this was the traditional form of government, which took place in the first civilizations located in river valleys. most governments evolved from this. it was mainly hereditary, meaning power was passed down from each generation to the next in the royal families.

Tyranny

This was the form of government where officials gain power by force, or without legal right. some gained power by imposing reforms

Aristocracy

where leaders rule by a landholding elite. noble landowners seized the power in one point of time, resulting in this form of government

Oligarchy

this form of government is controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class or a powerful minority. They gain power by collecting the citizen's trust and gaining leadership

Democracy

Citizens or leaders are elected in order to gain the nation's power

heliocentric

revolving around the sun

mesopotamia

The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; birthplace of the Sumerian and Babylonian Civilizations.

Cyrus

The Persian ruler who conquered Babylon and later on freed the Jews from captivity.

Polis

The Greek's unique version of the city state

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world

Fertile Crescent

Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produce their crops. Considered the crossroads of civilization.

torah

the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written

Hebrews

what were the Jews also called?

Tutankhamen

The son in law of Akhenaton. His tomb was found in 1922 by Howard Carter. Many things were found in his tombs such as chariots, weapons, furniture, jewelry, toys, games and food. He was a minor king.

Virtuous

having excellent morals; righteous, having values.

Exodus

the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses

Dialogue

conversation between two or more people

sophists

Questioned accepted ideas. Success was more important to these people than moral truth. Developed skills in rehetoric. Ambitious men used clevor rhetoric to advance their careers. Turmoil of the Peloponnesian war led many Athenians to follow these people. Older citizens, however, accused them of undermining traditional values.

Nile

the world's longest river (4180 miles)

Black land

the rich irrigated land that lies near the red land (a sun baked desert that stretches across North Africa)

Sumerians

Believed the afterlife would be a place of suffering because of the challanges they faced in life- figured the afterworld could be no better. The gold-rich land to the south of Egypt.

Tomb robbers

Were always tempted to steal from tombs. Tombs were stripped of their treasures long ago because of these.

Phoenicians

The group of people who gained fame as sailors and traders. Also occupied a strong of cities along the Eastern Mediterranean, which is now the area of Lebanon and Syria.

Artisans

skilled craftsworkers

Polytheistic

the act of believing in multiple gods

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