ad hominem argument
argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason.
using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
repetition or sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words.
a direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
similarity or comparison between two different things used in order to explain something unfamiliar.
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
contradiction of words, ideas, clauses, or sentences within a balanced grammatical structure; parallelism serving to emphasize the opposition of ideas.
terse statement that expresses a general truth or moral principle.
figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction.
subject's distinctive features or peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect.
inverted parallelism; two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms.
grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
slang or informality in speech or writing.
extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.
non-literal, associative meaning of a word; implied, suggested meaning.
strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word.
primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts
metaphor developed at great length, throughout a work.
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning.
figure of speech
device used to produce figurative language, including apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metanymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
traditions for each genre.
the major category into which a literary work fits.
any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstraction; related to the five senses; on a deeper level, one image can represent more than one thing.
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.
contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true.
words literally state the opposite of the writer's or speaker's true meaning.
events turn out the opposite of what was expected.
facts or events are unknown to a character but known to the reader, audience, or other characters.
placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together.
sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first.
implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other.
name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.
used for factual sentences.
used for a doubtful or conditional attitude.
used for commands.
telling of a story.
natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.
apparently contradictory terms suggest a paradox.
a statement that appears to be self-contradictory.
rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structured similarity.
a word that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect, distorting or exaggerating distinctive features of the original.
words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly.
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end, preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.
presenting or describing concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
point of view
perspective from which a story is told.
tells the story with the first-person pronoun, "I", and is a character in the story.
tells the story with the third-person pronouns, "he", "she", and "it".
the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts and actions of any or all of the characters.
narrator presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character, and only the actions of all remaining characters.
an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause,that follows a linking verb.
a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject and follows a linking verb.
fiction and nonfiction; anything that isn't poetry or drama.
duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language.
principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response.
logical reasoning; examples and details.
credibility; common attitudes, beliefs, and characteristics of a time period or group.
the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of writing.
to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, thoughtful discussion, and insightful argument.
to re-create, invent, or visually present.
to tell a story or narrate an event.
a question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply.
bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule.
a work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule.
an explicit comparison, usually using "like", "as", or "if".
an evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices.
word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes, the sentence of the subject by either renaming it or describing it.
grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb, but cannot stand alone and depends on a main clause.
system of formal logic that presents two premises- the first called "major" and the second "minor"- that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion (slippery slope).
anything that represents or stands for something else.
using objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them.
invested with meaning by a group.
phrases, clauses, and sentences; what kinds of sentences the author uses.
central idea of message of a work.
sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or preposition.
author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both.
word or phrase that links different ideas, signaling a shift from one idea to the other.
ironic minimalizing of fact.
affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite.
something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves.
intellectually amusing language that is humorous and perceptive.