Congress of Berlin, 1878
A meeting of the Great Powers of Europe and the Ottoman Empire, in order to reorganize the countries of the Balkans and settle the disputes over them. At the Congress, Germany, Austria and Britain forced Russia to give up the Treaty of San Stefano and sign the Treaty of Berlin, which split Bulgaria into three parts, and brought Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian military occupation, and essentially negated Russia's victory over the Ottoman empire in the Russo-Turkish War, angering Russia.
During the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Bismarck agreed to act as an "Honest Broker" (a neutral party) in order to balance the interests of Russia, Britain and Austria-Hungary in the division of the Balkan countries.
Three Emperors' League
In 1873, an alliance between the rulers of Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary. It was an alliance of fellow autocratic rulers against radical movements within their countries. Germany was also trying to prevent conflict between the other two nations, and isolate France in the process.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, lasting from 1882 to 1918. It was an expansion of the Austrian-German Alliance formed in 1879. Italy joined due to tensions with France. The three countries agreed support if any of them were attacked by France or Russia.
Also known as the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, it lasted from 1887 to 1890. when Russia declined to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors in 1887, Bismarck substituted the reinsurance treaty, in which both states promised neutrality if the other was attacked.
1904, a "friendly understanding" between France and England after the formation of the Triple Alliance, the goal of which was to encourage cooperation against the perceived threat of Germany.
a meeting of European powers held in Algeciras, Spain, in 1906 to settle a Franco-German dispute over Morocco (Germany had been left out of a previous trade agreemnent in the area and hoped to weaken French power and the Anglo-French Entente through the conference.) However, the Conference instead drove Britain and France closer together, as well as opening Moroccan trade to all nations.
Idealistic Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul, fervent patriots who seized power in the Turkish Revolution of 1908, and forced the sultan to implement reforms, preparing the way for the birth of a modern secular Turkey after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
gained independence from the Turks in1878, and established a monarchy in 1882. It lead the way in Eastern European nationalist movements in the early twentieth century, angering Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and looking to Russia for alliance. Austria-Hungarian aggression against Serbia and its neighbors lead to the first and second Balkan Wars. Implication of Serbian nationalists in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the backlash from Austria-Hungary is credited with beginning of WWI.
A theory and movement intended to promote the cultural or political unity of all Slavs. It rose with the emergence of nationalism in the nineteenth century, and grew with the cultural self-identification of Slavs in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Pan-Slavism was a factor in the Russian support of Serbia at the beginning of World War I.
A prominent type of 20th century battleship, named after the prominent British HMS Dreadnought. The building of the dreadnaought influenced and aggravated the naval arms race between Britain and Germany in the years leading up to WWI, giving rise to the two largest dreadnought fleets of the pre-War period.
Hague Conferences of 1899 & 1907
The first Hague conferences in 1899 was attended by 26 nations and was charged with charting a course toward disarmament and placing limitations on the means of conducting warfare. While disputing nations made agreement impossible, provisions were made to set up a Permanent Court of Arbitration (aka Hague Tribunal), which would render decisions on international disputes between cooperating nations. During the second Hague conferences, the United States pushed for the establishment of a world court, different that the Hague Tribunal. Again, the nations were not able to reach agreement. However, there was some success in adopting resolutions defining the codes of conduct in modern warfare, and the continuation of th Hague Tribunal. .
1914-1918, an alliance formed between Russia, France and England in reaction to the Triple Alliance, which threatened France, the growth of the German Navy, which threatened England, and the growth of the German Army and possibility of Austria-Hungarian expansion, which threatened Russia. The members agreed to help Serbia if it was attacked by the members of the Triple Alliance.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, he was assassinated along with his wife Sophie by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip while he was visiting the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo on June 28 1914.
The capital of Bosnia, and location of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, during a state visit to the city.
Princip was one of three men sent by Dragutin Dimitrijevic, the chief of the Intelligence Department in the Serbian Army and head of the Black Hand, to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand, during his visit to Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. He succeeded in shooting the Archduke, as well as his wife.
German "blank check"
On 6 July 1914 Germany gave Austria-Hungary a guarantee of almost unconditional support in any war arising from its dealings with Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. This guaranteeis often referred to as the 'blank check'.
After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Austria-Hungary wanted to punish Serbia. On July 23 they presented Serbia with an ultimatum, in which Serbia had 48 hours to cede control of the Serbian state to Austria-Hungary. When Serbia did not, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28.
The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during World War I, so called because of their central location in Europe. It stemmed from the Triple Alliance, but changed sides and the Ottoman empire joined. They were the losing side of the war.
The countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. Consisted of Russia, France, Britain, Serbia, Italy, Japan and the United States, among others. An expansion of the Triple Entente.
General Helmuth von Moltke
Became the German Army Chief of Staff in 1906. He advocated German response to the French military buildup in the south, and after the outbreak of World War I, he was able to convince Kaiser Wilhelm II to follow the Schlieffen Plan. However, he was not an effective leader during the German invasion of France and so was replaced.
Due to the threat of a possible combined attack from Russia, France and Britain on Germany, the Germans adopted the Schlieffen Plan. This focused on the speedy defeat of France, assuming that Russia and Britain would not want to continue fighting if their ally was defeated. It also assumed that Russia would be slow to mobilize for war. 90% of Germany's armed forces would attack France, making their way through Belgium and Luxembourg. It was put into effect on August 2, 1914, but failed due to the unexpected fortitude of the Belgian Army and the Russian advance into German territory.
General Joseph Joffre
A French General, he took command of the French army at the outbreak of World War I. He helped counter the German Schlieffen Plan, and ordered the attack on the German Army at the Marne. However, due to the French inability to break through on the Western Front, Joffre was replaced.
General Paul von Hindenburg
A German General during the First World War, he was a seasoned veteran and was sent to the Eastern Front, where he won several victories over the Russians. He was seen as the Savior of East Prussia, and became the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1916, and with military support he and Ludendorff formed the Third Supreme Command, a military-industrial dictatorship, which held power until September 1918.
General Erich Ludendorff
A German General during the First World War, he worked on the Schlieffen Plan. At the outbreak of the war he was appointed Chief of Staff in East Prussia, and with Hindenburg became a leader of the Third Supreme Command. He gradually became the dominant figure and by July 1917 had effective political, military and economic control of Germany. When he realized that Germany would lose the war, he transferred power to the Reichstag, and was forced to resign.
A prominent German family famous for their steel and weapon production. In World War I, they produced most of the artillery for the German Imperial Army.
A type of large howitzer (some sort of weapon that was very useful for trench warfare because of it's ability to strike objects on a horizontal plane.) Big Berthas were 43 tons, could fire a 2,200 lb. shell over 9 miles, and were used successfully by the Germans in Belgium.
Treaty of London 
A secret pact made between Italy and the Triple Entente, according to which Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the Triple Entente, as well as declaring war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, for which it would receive some territory.
"No Man's Land"
the term used by soldiers to describe the ground between the two opposing trenches, averaging about 250 yards and consisting of a lot of barbed wire. Advances on this area were always very difficult.
Battle of Verdun
The longest single battle of World War I, lasting 10 moths and with approximately 700,000 casualties. It began as a German attack on the French, and ultimately the French won.
Battle of the Somme
July-November 1916, with approximately 1.2 million casualties. This battle was started by the Allies in order to relieve the French in the battle at Verdun by drawing some of the German army away. At the end, the Allies had advanced at the most seven miles.
Battle of Gallipoli
Also known as the Gallipoli campaign, it took place at the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey from April-January 1915-1916. It was a joint British and French operation meant to capture the capital city Constantinople and to secure a sea route to Russia. This failed, with nearly half a million casualties.
abbreviation of the German underseeboot ,German submarines, new weapons at the time that violated the traditional niceties of naval warfare (which upset the U.S., eventually causing them to enter WWI on the side of the Allies. Were used to try to isolate Britain from aid and starve it in to submission.
A British passenger liner that was sunk by German U-boats in May 1915. More than 1000 lives were lost, including 139 American citizens. President Wilson was very upset that German had done this (and violated naval code in the process) and forced Germany to relax its submarine warfare for two years or face war with the United States.
Battle of Jutland
The largest naval battle of WWI and the only full-scale class of battleships, as well as one of the largest naval battles in history. It was fought May 31- June 1 1916 in the sea off Denmark between the German and British navies. 25 ships were sunk in total, and both sides claimed victory, although Britain had lost more ships and had fewer casualties.
A telegram sent from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German minister to Mexico, in which he was offering United States territory to Mexico in return for their joining the German cause. The telegram was intercepted and decoded by British cryptographers. A month after its publication in US newspapers, the United States declared war on Germany.
comes from the German word meaning "units of the army reserve." Is commonly used in English to mean a substitute or artificial replacement.
Erich Maria Remarque
born Erich Paul Remark, he was a German author, his most famous work being All Quiet on the Western Front (1929.) At the age of 18 he was conscripted into the German Army and sent to the Western Front, where he was wounded. After the war he began writing.
All Quiet on the Western Front
(1929) a novel written by Erich Maria Remarque illustrating the horrors of World War I and the experiences of veterans and soldiers. It was extremely popular, but also caused a lot of political controversy when it was first published, and was banned in Germany in the 1930's.
Irish Easter Rebellion
In 1916, a republican nationalist insurrection in Ireland against the British government there. It failed to spread beyond Dublin. 15 of the leaders (members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood) were executed by the British government, which incited a wave of revulsion against the British and turned the dead men into martyrs. While unsuccessful, the rebellion heralded the end of British power in Ireland.
In 1914, due to Turkish-Armenian racial tensions, as well as the conflict with Russia the Ottomans ordered a genocidal mass deportation of Armenian citizens. Armenian leaders were executed. Men were sent to prison or drafted, where they were tortured and killed. The elderly, women and children were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert. The few that survived the voyage were killed upon arrival. A million Armenians died.
General Henri-Philippe Pétain
A general in the French army, he was placed in charge of the defense of Verdun by General Joffre, where he was largely successful and earned acclaim for his policy of artillery-based defence backed by expert organisation of supplies and manpower. However, once he was promoted, he suggested withdrawal and was taken out of control.
General Ferdinand Foch
French general as well as a teacher at the Ecole de Guerre (War School.) He lead the counter-attack at the First and Second Battles of the Marne (1914 and 1918.) He was made chief of the General Staff in 1918 and was given overall control of the Allied forces in March 1918, and accepted the German surrender in November 1918.
Battle of the Argonne
Part of the final Allied offensive against the Germans, stretched across the entire Western Front along the Hindenburg line. Planned by General Foch, its success was a key example of effective American force in the later stages of the war, as their fresh troops and sheer numbers were crucial in the winning of this battle.
T. E. Lawrence
Popularly know as Lawrence of Arabia, when World War I broke out he became a member of the British Military Intelligence Department in Cairo, and eventually became the British liaison officer to the Arabs during their rebellion against the Turkish Empire. After the war he served the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference, where he promoted the cause of Arab independence. Although this failed, he was later able to help Winston Churchill settle a rebellion in Iraq in 1922.
During the First World War, the British convinced the Arab leader Hussein ibn-Ali, the chief magistrate of Mecca, to revolt against the Turks. The Arabs were given vague promises for British support of an independent Arab kingdom in exchange for their causing problems for the Ottomans with their rebellion. In 191
The British pledge to Hussein ibn-Ali to support Arab independence if Hussein's forces revolted against the Turks. However, after the war the British broke this pledge and honored secret wartime agreements with France to divide and rule the Ottoman lands.
In 1916, a secret agreement between Britain and France (with Russian assent) in which the two countries divided up their spheres of influence and control after the expected fall of the Ottoman Empire. Britain would control Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq, while France would get modern day Lebanon and Syria, as well as much of southern Turkey. This conflicted with the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915-1916, causing Arab nationalists to feel as though they had been double-crossed.
In 1917,a British declaration (made by the British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour) that stated that Britain favored a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine, but without prejudicing the existing rights of non-Jewish communities there, or the political rights of Jews in other countries. There were conflicting reactions to this declaration: while most Zionist Jews approved, some felt that it was not specific enough, while Palestinian Arabs were not pleased.
Prince Max of Baden
Germany's last imperial Chancellor prior to the revolution of November 1918, a moderate who eventually approved of the removal of the Kaiser.
November 11, 1918, 11 am
The date and time of the signing of the Armistice ending the First World War, after Germany and Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allied Powers.
(German for... wait for it... "Free Corps") Paramilitary organizations that sprang up around Germany as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. veterans joined them after having trouble adapting back to civilian life and others joined in order to help put down Communist uprisings or exact revenge. They were used to crush various uprisings and rebellions, and were officially disbanded in the 1920's.
Paris Peace Conference
The meeting of the Allied Forces in Paris in 1919 to set the peace terms for Germany and the other nations defeated in WWI, and to try to create a lasting peace throughout the world. Delegates came from 30 countries, however Germany and Austria Hungary were not allowed to attend. Britain and France wanted to punish Germany severely for the War, while Wilson pushed his 14 points, as well as establishing a League of Nations. France also wanted protection form possible future German aggression. The Treaty of Versailles, a result of this conference, dealt with the German question, although no one was entirely happy with the end result.
A peace proposal from US President Woodrow Wilson made in January 1918. The proposal stressed national self-determination and the rights of small countries (including trade equality) and the evacuation of countries affected by the war. Also, the formation of a "general association of nations."
Commonly know as the "Guilt Clause" of the Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to take complete responsibility for starting World War I. Was the result of the thirst for revenge from British and French citizens.
Point 10 of Wilson's 14 points, which would redraw the frontiers of Eastern Europe so races/nations ruled themselves. It was achieved for some countries (Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, were made nations or nation-states.) However, members of the losing side of the war were not allowed self-determination, nor were colonies
"Big Four" Delegates from the major four Allied powers at the Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) David Lloyd George (Britain) Georges Clemenceau (France) and Vittorio Orlando (Italy.)
aka "the Tiger" the prime minister of France, most notably from 1917-1920. He worked to revive French morale during WWI, and energetically pursued the war to its conclusion. At the Paris Peace Conference he insisted on utter humiliation of Germany, disarmament and reparations, but was still largely unsatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles, because France still felt vulnerable to German attack with no Rhineland buffer state.
Prime minister of Italy from 1917-1918, he headed the Italian contingent at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. When Italy did not obtain the expected territorial concessions (due to Wilson's ideals of self-determination) he dramatically left the conference early, and only returned to sign the resultant treaty.
The land surrounding the Rhine river in the west of Germany, on the borders of Belgium and France. At the end of the First World War the area was occupied by Allied forces, and remained there until 1930. Sections of the area were annexed from Germany under the Treaty of Versailles. France tried to separate the area from Germany after WWI and create a buffer state (a French puppet) to protect France from further German aggression, but failed.
A strip of German territory awarded to newly independent Poland by the Treaty of Versailles. It was 20-70 meters wide and gave Poland access to the Baltic Sea and separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. Although originally Polish, a large minority of the population was German-speaking, an the entire situation caused friction between Poland and Germany, ultimately culminating in the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and World War II.
A predominantly German city placed within the Polish tariff lines, but as a self-governing city under League of Nations protection, albeit with special administrative ties to Poland.
An area of 10,400 square miles in Bohemia, Moravia and Sudeten Silesia. In 1918, the Sudeten Germans invoked the right of self-determination and demanded to be reunited with Austria, however, the peace conferences ruled against this, and the Sudeten Germans were forced to going Czechoslovakia, which rejected and discriminated against the German members of its country.
League of Nations
An inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. At its highest point it had 58 members, although the United States was not one of them. Some of its goals were disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. It was the brainchild of US president Woodrow Wilson. It proved ineffective at preventing WWII, and was replaced by the United Nations at the end of that war.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
The man responsible for unifying the Turkish resistance, battling against the Allied dismemberment of the country, and founding the modern Turkish Republic. He was the military leader in charge of the successful defense at the Battle of Gallipoli, and after the war refused to accept British or American mandates in Turkey, fighting for independence until it was achieved in 1921. He believed that Turkey should modernize and secularize along Western lines, and reformed the traditional religious social makeup of the country.
a revolution that combined both economic and political changes that reinforced each other to create a stronger impact; spread all throughout Europe during the nineteenth century. An example of this would be the growth of the industrial middle class encouraging the drive for representative government and the demands of the French sans-culottes inspiring many socialist thinkers in 1793 and 1794.
Congress of Vienna
held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815, it was a conference of ambassadors from the Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain) chaired by Austrian prime minister, Klemens von Metternich, whose objective was to redraw Europe's political map and settle issues that stemmed out of the French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars and also reestablish the boundary lines of France.
formed in 1815 after the Congress of Vienna, it consisted of Austria, Prussia and Russia whose goal was to prevent revolutionary influence (particularly that of France) from spreading and "corrupting" other nations as well as to instill Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Vehemently against revolution.
issued in 1819 by Metternich, required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers. These decrees also established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organization.
one of the ideologies that stemmed out of the dual revolution; its principal ideas were liberty and equality and demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy and equality before the law. Liberalism also granted freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Realized successfully in the American Revolution and partly in the French revolution. Opponents criticized liberalism for its economic principles which called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference with the economy.
liberalist document that literally men "let do" which states that governments should not interfere with the market.
one of the ideologies that stemmed out of the dual revolution in which the people feel a strong sense of national and cultural pride. It originated from the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars and spread rapidly thereafter. Early nationalism included creating a standardized national language to improve communication between individuals and groups, bringing citizens together with emotionally charged symbols and ceremonies, and the belief that every nation had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit. It stressed the ideas of national mission and national superiority.
Began in France after 1815, in which the early Frenchmen believed in an urgent need for reorganization of society with better cooperation and a new sense of community. Early socialists argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job. They shared an intense desire to help the poor and they preached that the rich and poor should be more nearly economically equal. Lastly, they believed that private property should be strictly regulated by the government or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership. Karl Marx developed his own version of socialism known as Marxism.
part of the socialist ideology developed by Count Henri de Saint-Simon of France. The parasites were the court, aristocracy and lawyers and the church that should give way to the doers.
part of the socialist ideology developed by Count Henri de Saint-Simon of France. The doers were the leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists that would carefully plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking vast public works projects and establishing investment banks.
an idea of Marxist socialism. The Bourgeoisie was the middle class and, according to Marx, had exploited the other class, the proletariat.
the modern working class that Marx predicted would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. This ever-poor class was constantly growing in size and in class-consciousness and thus would be able to conquer the oppressive bourgeoisie.
an art movement that was characterized by a belief in EMOtional exuberance, unrestrained imagination and spontaneity in both art and personal life. Romantics believed that full development of one's unique human potential was the supreme purpose in life. They opposed classical ideas and focused more on nature, therefore expressing negative opinions about the industrial revolution which they believed was an ugly, brutal attack on nature and human personality. They believed that the key to a universe was perceived as organic and dynamic rather than enlightenment ideals of mechanical and static.
Sturm und Drang
"Storm and Stress," what German romantics called themselves.
British laws set in 1815 in which the aristocracy changed the laws in which Parliament prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels. The corn laws resulted in protests and demonstrations by urban laborers who received support from radical intellectuals.
Battle of Peterloo
scornfully nicknamed after the British victory at Waterloo, the battle demonstrated the government's determination to repress and stand fast. Following the passing of the infamous Six Acts which placed heavy controls on a heavily taxed press and eliminated all mass meetings, an enormous but orderly protest was savagely beaten and broken up by armed cavalry.
Occurring in Ireland after the potato crop failed between 1845 and 1851, the great famine attacked young plants, withered leaves and rotted tubers. It was followed by widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics. The British government was slow to act due to committing to laissez-faire ideology and when it did act, its relief efforts were tragically inadequate. It continued to collect taxes, however, and landowners continued to demand rents. The famine shattered the population of Ireland. 1 million emigrants fled between 1845 and 1851, 1.5 million died or went unborn and thus, Ireland experienced a declining population in the nineteenth century falling from a pop of 8 million in 1845 to 4.4 million in 1911. The famine also intensified anti-British feeling and promoted Irish nationalism for the lack of support and aid from fiercely angered Irish citizens.
Giusepppe Garibaldi's guerilla band of a thousand supporters that captured the imagination of the Sicillian peasantry. They won battles, gained volunteers and took Palermo.
The German customs union that was founded in 1934 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states. It had not included Austria and after 1848, this act became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. The rapid growth of modern industry within this union threatened to undermine the political status quo. Prussia took a leading role in the Zollverein which gave in a valuable advantage in its struggles.
Homestead Act of 1862
gave western land to settlers in the North of the US.
the changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
established in 1865 as a new institution of local government in Russia. Members of this local assembly were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages and noble landowners. The executive council dealt with local problems.
Revolution of 1905
Occurred in Russia in 1905 in which the Russians had to deal with the separatist nationalist countries such as Poland and Ukraine as well as dealing with suffering lower and middle class workers who wished to see a change in government from absolutist to a liberal representative regime. By the summer of 1905, peasant uprisings, revolts among minority nationalities and troop mutinies were sweeping the country. Began with Bloody Sunday in 1905 and ended around 1907ish.
issues by the Tsar, granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (Parliament) with real legislative power.
first elected in 1906, this parliament was granted the power (by the Fundamental Laws) to debate and pass laws but the tsar ultimately had the last say with his absolute veto. It was elected indirectly by universal male suffrage and was a largely appointive upper house; consisted largely of middle-class liberals.
the Ottoman sultan's "slave army."
a short-lived parliament in the Ottoman Empire that set out to remake the empire on a western European model. New decrees called for the equality of Muslims, Christians and Jews before the law and a modernized administration and military. New commercial laws allowed free importation of foreign goods and permitted foreign merchants to operate freely throughout the empire. Unfortunately, the Tanzimat fell short of its goals due to its inability to halt the growth of nationalism among Christian subjects in the Balkans and because Ottoman initiatives did not curtail the appetite of Western imperialism which secured a stranglehold on the Ottoman economy.
fervent Ottoman patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908 and forced the sultan to implement reforms.
the German popularly elected lower house.
"struggle for civilization," Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church.
a civil case in which a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason. In 1898 and 1899, the case split France apart. One side was the army who was joined by anti-Semites and most of the Catholic establishment and the other were the civil libertarians and most of the more radical republicans. After Drefus was declared innocent, it resulted in the severing of all ties between the state and the Catholic Church between 1901 and 1905.
initially vetoed by the House of Lords in 1906, it was a proposal by the House of Commons which was designed to increase spending on social welfare services. It was eventually passed after the king threatened to create enough new peers to pass the bill.
led by Theodor Herzl, it was the international Jewish political movement.
an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time. Deemed one of the most awful of sins in the eyes of militant Marxists in the twentieth century.
narrow houses set up in cities and towns to minimize space. The houses were built wall to wall in long rows. They had neither front yards nor back yards, but instead narrow alleys to separate the houses.
the name for a follower of the philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832); Bentham had stated that public problems should be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis, and also should be based on which plan would benefit the greatest number of people.
the most famous reformer of public health in Britain during the nineteenth century. After being one of the commissioners charged under the revised Poor Law (1834) for the ineffective way he organized relief and the poor, he used the philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and applied it to the situation in Britain. His theory was disease and death caused poverty, because a sick worker was unemployed. Also, he believed that disease would not spread if they cleaned up the cities/towns and all came up with the theory that sewers could be used in communal outhouses. In 1842, he collected reports from Poor Law officials in the area, and published the information; this report became the outline of Britain's first public health law.
Britain's First Public Health Law
formed in 1848 after Chadwick's report became well known. Created a national health board, and gave cities rights to build modern sanitary systems.
Theory believed prior to Chadwick's time that people get diseases when they breathe in bad odors of "decay and putrefying excrement". This idea was lost some credibility when observation in the 1840s and 1850s concluded that infection spread through filth, instead of being caused by it.
Theory developed by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), a French chemist who started studying fermentation in 1854 for brewery. In his observation, he realized that fermentation was dependent on the growth of living organisms, and the activity of the organisms could be concealed by heat, or pasteurization. This implied that germs caused disease, but they could be controlled.
developed Germ theory in 1854.
an English surgeon (1827-1912) who came up with the antiseptic principle in 1865, after Louis Pasteur's conclusion that there were a lot of bacteria in the air.
the theory developed by Joseph Lister about the connection between aerial bacteria and wound infection. He believed that if a chemical disinfectant were applied to a wound, it would destroy the bacteria. This led to the development of better sterilization in German operating rooms in the 1880s.
Ruled France 1848-1870. Policy was to stand above class conflict and work for the welfare of his subjects through government action. He was a leader in urban planning; he thought that rebuilding a large part of Paris would benefit (employment, living conditions).
(1809-1884) Baron. Napoleon placed in charge of Paris. With other urban planners, he destroyed old buildings to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through both the center of the city, as well as on the outskirts. This allowed for easier traffic flow, better housing, and sewers.
Adopted by Europe from America in the 1890s. They were widely used by millions because they were cheaper, faster, more dependable, and more comfortable than horse-drawn carriages. Also allowed people to move farther to new housing.
The top fifteen percent of working classes. All were highly skilled workers, and had risen to their ranking. Their jobs usually were construction bosses and factory foremen, as well as handicraft traders (jewelers, etc). They earned about two-thirds of bottom rank servant-keeping classes, but about twice as much as the un-skilled workers. They started to become replaced by these workers, who would do the same jobs for less money.
established church. Working class began to disagree more with church, as they felt they were working against them (supporting what they defended and supporting what they wanted to change). Many people had anti-church attitudes, but were neutral or positive towards religion.
Tremendous number of births occurring outside of wedlock during 1750-1850, after sexual experimentation before marriage became more common. Many illegitimate births occurred amongst the poor, partially due to economic in stability, but also because of the idea that sex before marriage was okay.
My Secret Life
Anonymous autobiography that uses prostitution to reveal the negative aspects of sec and class in urban society.
Ideal, developed once the economy had improved, that married women shouldn't work outside the home except in poor families. This defined the wife as mother and homemaker, and the husband as wage earner.
Mental devices, that Freud explained, are being used to keep our conscious emotional needs from conscious awareness. Most of this is sexual energy that is controlled by rational thinking and moral rules.
-Louis Pasteur and his followers continued work of Isaac Newton's study on mechanics and steam engines (the scientific discoveries were anytime after 1830s). They studied the relationship between heat and mechanical energy. By midcentury, the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, as well as the law of conservation of energy (different forms of energy can be converted but not created or destroyed), had been formed.
Russian chemist (1834-1907). He wrote the rules of chemistry in the periodic law, as well as the periodic table. Chemistry was also divided up into different branches, one being organic chemistry.
1798-1857. Wrote System of Positive Philosophy(1830-1842). Started to be more recognized starting in 1848 after political failure. He wrote about how the reasoning for cosmic patterns had changed from the will of God to the will of an orderly nature. He also believed that by applying the scientific, or positivist, method, sociology would discover the eternal laws of human relations.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
-(1744-1829). Wrote that all forms of life had arisen from a long process of continuous adjustment to environment. His ideas, while, not completely correct, helped lead to the ideas of Darwin.
(1809-1882)- After carefully collecting animals from Latin America and the South Pacific, wrote that all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestor. Theory is summarized in On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection (1859).
(1820-1903). Social Darwinist. Follower of Comte. Saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the economic struggle ("survival of the fittest").
Depicted life how it was. Wrote in very straight-forward viewpoints- observed and recorded everyday activities. Began in France under Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola.
(1844-1900). German philosopher who rejected Christianity; claimed that Christianity was "slave-morality" that "glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity", and also stated that Christians no longer truly believed in God ("God is dead"). He also saw the pillars of conventional morality (reason, democracy, progress, respectability) as social and psychological constructs that held in self-realization and excellence. His ideas disturbed many people, and attracted mostly German radicals.
(1859-1941) French philosophy professor; wrote in the 1890s that immediate experience and intuition were just as important as rational and scientific thinking in order to understand reality.
(1847-1922) French socialist. He wrote that Marxian socialism was not a rational scientific truth, but an inspiring religion. He rejected democracy, and felt that socialism would take control through a strike of the people, and thus hurt capitalism. He felt this needed to be led by a small elite class.
Founder of logical empiricism. Originally an Austrian philosopher, but latter moved to England to train his disciples. Wrote Tractatus Logico-Philosphicus in 1922.
Rejected most of traditional philosophy (existence of god, meaning of happiness) as essentially nothing. Philosophical issues (God, freedom, morality, etc.) were determined to be a waste of time because they couldn't be tested. People could no longer find answers in philosophy.
Didn't believe that a supreme being could have stashed the nature of humanity, or given life meaning (partly following Nietzche's theory), and therefore were driven by despair. Most followers were atheist.
(1905-1980). French existentialist.
(1913) French existentialist.
thinkers who had the despair and loneliness of existentialists, but also believed in sinful nature, need for faith, and the mystery of God's forgiveness.
(1813-1855) Danish religious philosopher whose writings were revived after WWI. They encouraged the start of Christian existentialism.
(1886-1968) Believed that "human beings are imperfect, sinful creatures whose reason and will are hopelessly flawed".
(1887-1973) Leading existential Christian Catholic. He supported closer ties with non-Catholics.
(1867-1934) Physicist who discovered, with husband Pierre, that radium consistently emits subatomic particles, and therefore doesn't have constant atomic weight.
(1858-1947) Discovered in 1900 that subatomic energy is not emitted in a steady stream, but in quanta, or uneven spurts.
(1879-1955). Developed theory of special relativity. It stated that time and space are relative to viewpoint of observer & speed of light is the only constant frame of reference. This was able to unite the universe, with the small sub-atomic world.
(1871-1937) In 1919, showed that an atom can be split. Thus, by 1944, seven subatomic particles were identified (including the neutron).
Discovered between 1919-1944. It s ability to pass through other atoms allowed chain reactions of huge amounts of force. Led to atomic bomb.
(1901-1976) German physicist who created the "principle of uncertainty". The theory said that because it is impossible to know the speed and position of an electron, it is not possible to predict its behavior. Therefore, there is only tendency and probability.
Believed human behavior was irrational. The irrational consciousness, or the id, was the only way to understand the mind. Pleasures/desires are constantly in a battle with the ego (rationalizing consciousness) or the superego (ingrained moral values).
(1871-1922). Used all-knowing narrators, realistic characters. Wrote on the complexity and irrationality of human mind (similar to Freud).
Most notably used by James Joyce in Ulysses, also by Virginia Woolf and William Faulkner. Writing had internal monologues, unconventional grammar, blending of foreign puns, knowledge, and memory.
Written by George Orwell in 1949. Story of a totalitarian state and its dictator. Responded well during the end of an age of anxiety.
new theory about the physical framework of urban buildings. It was believed that all buildings should serve the purpose for which they were made. Major pioneers were Louis H. Sullivan (cheap steel, reinforced concrete electric elevators for skyscrapers), Frank Lloyd Wright (modern houses with low lines, open interiors, and mass-produced building materials), and Walter Gropius (Fagus shoe factory, Bauhaus).
school that brought together all architects, designers, and theatrical innovators to integrate the fine arts with applied arts. Was started by Walter Gropius, was taken over by Ludwig Miles can der Rohe.
Capture momentary impression of light on real-life scene. Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro led.
Began by 1890. Expressed complicated psychological view of reality with overwhelming emotional intensity. Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Paul Cezanne, and Henri Matisse.
technique began by Pablo Picasso in 1907. Concentrated on complex geometry of zigzagging lines, and sharply angled, overlapping planes.
Artistic movement in 1920s and 1930s that extended from prewar. It attacked all parts of standard art and behavior, to the point of being outrageous. Famous example is the Mona Lisa.
(1874-1951). Viennese composer who got rid of traditional harmony and tonality so that the tones were arranged without pattern (All keys were independent). After WWI.
sponsored first major public broadcast in 1920. Was in English, Italian, and French.
British Broadcasting Corporation
Broadcasting network set up by Parliament. Instead of being directly controlled by the government, it was supported through licensing fees. (U.S. was public, rest of Europe was government controlled).
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946) Criticized Treaty of Versailles in his book Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). His viewpoint was that huge reparations, and tough economic guidelines would lead to the impoverishment of Germany, and the economic hardship on all countries. He felt that the entire treaty needed to be revised for Germany/Europe to survive. His ideas were agreed upon by many English people, and caused guilt amongst English and American leaders.
Alliance between Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia against Hungary. France related itself with the alliance after signing a mutual defense pact with Poland in 1921, after being targeted by the British and U.S. regarding French army and foreign policy, as well as Russia for being hostile and communist.
(1860-1934) Prime minister of France. At center of disagreement regarding whether or not Germany should pay back reparations; consensus was that they needed to call out Germany. Moved fro Rhineland into Rhine district. Germany ordered people of Ruhr to not work, and passively resist French occupation.
1924. System set up between Germany, France, and Britain by an international committee of financial experts, led by Charles G. Dawes, as they reexamined Germany's reparations. Plan stated that Germany's yearly reparations would be reduced, and the money they did spend would depend on their current economic prosperity. Germany got loans from U.S. to pay reparations to France and Britain, and France and Britain paid this money to the U.S.
"Spirit of Locarno"
"Growing sense of security and stability in international affairs." Developed from the agreements signed by European leaders in 1925; agreements were that Germany and France would recognize their common border, and Britain and Italy would fight France or Germany if invaded each other.
"My Struggle." Book Hitler wrote in jail; the book outlined his theories and program.
Hitler's National Socialist Party
(see packet for concise description) Made up of anti-Semites, ultranationalists, and ex-servicemen.
Led by Ramsay MacDonald. Worked towards moderate socialism-show decline of previous liberal values. Replaced Liberal Party as main opponent of Conservative Party (led by Stanley Baldwin).
Great Depression (1929-1933)
Began with the stock market crash of 1929 in U.S. & only truly started to disappear with WWII. Let to pessimism, mass unemployment, and failing farms. Since the U.S. had lent so much money before the crash, they immediately asked for reparations, and it became hard for Europeans to borrow money. Also, far fewer goods were produced, and all countries tried to find resources in their own land. Overall, governments had tried to cut budgets and reduce spending, instead of allowing deficits.
Program developed by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932 to force government intervention in economy. One priority was agricultural recovery by devaluing the dollar (Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933). Also, established the NRA and controlling mass unemployment (WPA). Also established national social security system in 1935.
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
Part of New Deal. rose prices and farm income through limiting production. Farmers repaid Roosevelt by 1936.
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
New Deal program. Meant to reduce competition, as well as fix prices and wages to benefit everyone. Didn't work- ended in 1935.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal Program. Began in 1935 to build public buildings, bridges, and highways. Gave jobs to 1/5 of labor force.
National Labor Relativity Act
1935. Allowed union organizers to declare U.S. policy as collective bargaining through a national security system, pensions and unemployment benefits.
(see packet for concise description). Very popular in Sweden and Norway after WWI. Worked for social reform of peasants and workers.
Alliance formed in French elections of May 1936 between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals as result from the concern they had about the fascist movement overbroad. Won easily. Encouraged union movement and social reform.
Kingdoms or countries with low gross national product particularly in Africa, Asian and Latin America.
A system in which the British would smuggle opium into china in exchange for silver. This system along with military aggression greatly weakened china and allowed Britain and other western powers to open up china to foreign trade and ideals.
Ismail Ali, prince of Egypt from 1863- 1879 who westernized Egypt through modernizing his nation through projects like the Suez Canal. Eventually bankrupting his country and allowed the French and British to take control of many aspects of Egyptian society such as the state budget.
The rapid population growth that occurred in Europe, which resulted in a migration of Europeans to the third world between 1815 and 1932. As many as 60 million Europeans left Europe.
Italian farmers who worked all year long by farming in both Italy and Argentina in order to save money.
Great White Walls
European laws outside of Europe that halted Asian immigration to various regions such as Australia and the United States
A movement in which the nations of Europe raced to claim as much land and peoples as possible in order to gain national prestige which ranged from 1880-1914.
Dutch settlers of South Africa who resisted British conquest but eventually succumb to British dominance after the bloody Boer wars
An international conference of African Imperialism in berlin from 1884-1885. Helped prevent war over Africa or complete domination of the continent as well as work done to prevent slavery and the slave trade.
White Man's Burden
The belief that white people had a duty to bestow their knowledge and culture on "less advanced" peoples. Used by the Americans to justify the occupation of the Philippines.
An attempt by the Indian people to throw the English out of India in 1857, it was crushed in 1858 and the English took away the Indians ability to govern themselves and decided to rule India via the British Parliament.
A hereditary military governor that was a basis of Japanese society before the reforms in Japan by the Meji Restoration in 1871
the Warrior Nobility who helped the Shoguns enforce law and order in Japan.
Hundred Days of Reform
An attempt by the Chinese to reform their country in 1898 order to meet the western threat, that was undermined by the boxer revolution