four key elements of terrorism
premeditated, political, aimed at civilians, carried out by sub-national groups(not army)
how is terrorism political?
it isnt criminal, it is designed to change existing political order
where does the word "terrorism" come from?
Reign of Terror in France in 1790s
How is terrorism like theatre?
aimed at an audience, rehearsed, targets something big and symbolic, dramatic
goals of terrorism
to change behavior in a govt or society, bring attention to one's cause (all via fear)
terrorism in the french revolution
government sponsored terrorism-the government remained in power
terrorism with anarchists
individual terrorism-changing the government by targetting specific people
terrorism in history
has been used for over 200 years to achieve political, idealogical and religious goals but has evolved in purpose and application
terrorism in the russian revolution
lenin and stalin expanded idea of government sponsored terrorism and used it on a mass scale to control a population
terrorism at the end of WWII
ended colonialism-against govt and "collaborator" civilians
terrorism in cold war/middle east conflict
internationalization of terrorism-different terrorist groups unite
terrorism in the middle east
religiously motivated-suicide bombers and martyrdom, want to protect islam
mass destruction terrorism
causes structural damage/disruption, goal is to cause damage to infrastructure of society
mass casualty terrorism
goal is to cause massive death
mass disruption terrorism
goal is to change behavior, causes social, political, economic damage to society and leave psychological impact
three types of terrorist attacks
mass casualty, mass destruction, mass disruption
objective driven terrorism
goal is to get demands met by a govt, individuals will give govt a chance to negotiate terms
example of objective driven terrorism
US soldier taken hostage in Mogadishu
terror driven terrorism
act committed as a retaliation for a perceived wrong as a warning of future incidents if govt targeted doesnt comply with demands made
example of terror driven terrorism
WTC and Pentagon attacks
most common type, want a homeland, example is Kurds
most serious problem, example is al-qaeda
state sponsored terrorism
only a few situations, example is hezbollah
left wing terrorism
only a few left after the cold war, example is ELF
right wing terrorism
most unorganized, example is KKK
is anarchy-terrorism still present in the world?
narcotics, a growing problem, example is the Fark
has potentially disastrous results, we dont know who does it
state sponsors of terrorism (according to US staqte department)
iran, syria, cuba, sudan, north korea (removed but may return)
a nation assassinates another nations leader in order to replace him with another
some havens for terrorism
lebanon, afghanistan, yemen, pakistan
why are some countries "havens for terrorism"?
ineffective governance, rough terrain, tradition of tribal rivalries, ethnic and religious divisions, poverty and corruption
al-jihad fi sabil allah (jihad)
"struggle for the path of god", greater conflict is inner, lesser is outer
dor al hyb
jihadi belief, "world of strife"
dor al islam
jihadi belief, "world of peace" from the idyllic past that doesn't actually exist right now
fundamentalist jihadi concept, "time of ignorance", means that muslims are in non-Muslim areas
fundamentalist jihadi concept, "fleeing corrupt society", means that Muslims must leave anywhere that is non-Islamic
fundamentalist jihadi concept, can even be between Muslims
fundamentalist jihadi concept, ruler who rules non-islamically in a should-be Islamic land
founded Wahabism in Saudi Arabia
goal is to purify islam by challenging corrupt governments with very strict rules
abul a'ala maududi
pakistan/indian, true sovereignty is to god not to the people, rejects westernization
egyptian, reported US as perverted and un-godly, founded "muslim brotherhood", opposes Pan-Arab Nasser (political, not religious)
middle east in 60s and 70s
least democratic region, failure vs. israel, economic and political corruption
major happenings in islamic world in 1979
Iranian revolution and Grand Mosque attack at mecca
what did terrorism mean until the 20th century?
state terror like Lenins Cheka police
where does "separation of church and state" come from?
the european enlightenment
what are the two biggest enemies of the muslim fundamentalists?
secularism and modernism-dont want to erode their culture
what 3 things are the west accused of?
sexism, racism, imperialism
how do some muslims view the world?
2 parts, the House of Islam and the House of Unbelief