The Bible is the sole authority. They insisted on the individual believer's right to interpret the Bible.
Were adamantly opposed to infant baptism. They practiced "believer's baptism" (baptism of adults ("ana" means "again"-- They were baptized again as adults)
Insisted on complete separation of church and state: They wanted a church composed of believers freely meeting together, rather than a state church with some unsaved in it.
They belonged to a very diverse, widespread movement. They appealed to workers and peasants.
Anabaptist Movement Zwingli
The main body of the movement originated in Zurich, as a reaction against Zwingli's reforms, which they considered to be too slow.
Anabaptist Conrad Grebel Mass
In 1523, Conrad Grebel (and others) opposed Zwingli's for failing to abolish the Mass. Zwingli agreed that the Mass was unscriptural, but wanted the town council to decide when to abolish it. Grebel and others wanted to appeal only to Scripture.
Anabaptist Baptism Zurich
In 1525, the question of infant baptism was debated before the Zurich town council. Zwingli, who supported infant baptism, won. On January 21, 1525, Grebel and others met for discussion and prayer. George Blauroch asked Grebel and the others present.
Anabaptism was born in Zurich. The Swiss Anabaptists came to be known as the Swiss Brethen.
Severe persecution was carried out early. They were killed by Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics.
Anabaptist Persecution State
Their belief in the separation of church and state was considered treason and an invitation to anarchy. They were regarded as a revolutionary sect, dangerous to society.
Anabaptist Persecution Property
Their view of personal property as something to be shared with other Christians in their community was considered a threat to the stability of society.
Anabaptist Persecution Swear
Their refusal to swear an oath was essentially a declaration of revolution. Most rulers and theologians felt the oath was a major means of holding society together.
Anabaptist Persecution Baptism
Their opposition to infant baptism was considered heretical and their practice of rebaptism was considered worthy of death.
Anabaptist Persecution Munster Rebillion
A group of Anabaptists believed Christ was returning to set up His earthly kingdom in the city of Munster, in Germany: In 1535, the Anabaptists killed many in the city, and were besieged by the Catholics and Lutherans. Many Anabaptists were killed.
Anabaptist Radical Wing Three
Three groups of the Radical Wing of the Reformation.
(All three groups were opposed to infant baptism, but were very different otherwise.) Of the three groups, the Anabaptists were the most numerous and widespread.
Anabaptist Radical Wing
Their authority was the Bible
Inspirationalists Radical Wing
Their authority was the Holy Spirit, who gave them direct revelation.
Rationalists Radical Wing
Their authority was reason; they tended to be anti-Trinitarian
Anabaptist Conrad Grebel
Arrested in November 1525, tried and imprisoned, escaped, and died of plague in the Summer of 1526
Anabaptist Felix Manz
drowned in 1527 by the Zurich town council for rebaptizing
Anabaptist George Blauroch
was severely beaten on the day Manz was drowned. Burned at the stake 2 years later.
Anabaptist Michael Sattler
He was executed in May of 1527. He wrote the Schleithem Confession, the best known of all the early Anabaptist Confession. His wife was drowned 8 days after his execution.
Anabaptist Expansion and descendants
After these executions of the late 1520's, the center of the Swiss Anabaptists shifted from Zurich to Bern. Many fled from Zurich to Moravia, Poland, and the Netherlands.
The Mennonites Menno Simmons
Menno Simons (1496-1561) was the most important of the Dutch Anabaptist leaders.
For 25 years he shepherded and reorganized the Anabaptist communities of Holland and neighboring areas
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Mennonites became a numerous and influential community in Holland
The Amish are a branch of the Mennonites
Hutterites (from Jacob Hutter, martyred 1536)
These are descendants of the Swiss Anabaptists. They practiced a Christian communalism (held property in common)
Amish in America Anabaptist
most are old order Amish (180,000 or approx. 16% of all American Anabaptist)
Old Order Amish
Old Order Amish do not drive cars or use electricity; they educate their children only through the 8th grade, and meet in homes for worship
most dress in "plain" clothing (traditional clothing)
Amish men and women clothes
men grow beards and women have head covering
Brethren American Anabaptist
these are more progressive and make up 40% (approx. 300,000) of American Anabaptists
Brethren origin and ideas
originated in Germany in 1708, and are a combination of Dietism and Anabaptist ideas
most (but not all) wear modern clothing and use modern technology
Mennonites American Anabaptist
Mennonites make up 43% of all American Anabaptists (total of 340,000 in sexual denominations)
Mennonites Old Order
Old Order Mennonites (7% of all Mennonites) are more like traditional Amish
Mennonites clothing and use of things
most mennonites wear modern clothing and use modern technology
Calvin, Zwingli, Knox
very diverse, many leaders
church government Lutherans
church government Calvinists
church government Anabaptists
Infant Baptism Lutherans
infant Baptism Calvinists
infant baptism Anabaptist
separation between church and state Lutherans
separation between church and state Calvinists
separation between church and state Anabaptist