colonial america 1607-1763

26 terms by mmallsup13

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John Smith

adventurer, saved Jamestown = he who shall not work shall not eat. Mock executed by Powhatan, then saved by Pocahantis as a gesture of peaceful relations with Virginia.

John Rolfe

colonist who married Pocohantis, peace settlement that ened the 1st anglo powhatan war in 1614. killed in 1622 in indian attacks. known as he father of the tobacco industry and economic savior of virginia

House of Burgesses

1619 the virginia company gave permission to form an assembly, the first miniature parlament in the new world

Pilgrims/Separatists

landed at plymouth in 1617. Puritans who wanted ot break away from the Church of England after being first sent to holland came to new england on the mayflower

Mayflower Compact

written upon arrival at Plymouth.. NOT A CONSTITUTION. agreement to form a crude government and follow the rules.

Theocracy

government run by religious leaders

John Winthrop

immigrated to the Bay Colony and was the first governor, for 19 years. He believed it was his calling from God to lead. He hated and distrusted democracy. delivered "A model of christian Charity"

Roger Williams

Salem minister, extreme separatist. wanted compensation for the Native Americans. After being banished in 1635 he created Providence = freedom of religion became filled with exiles.

Anne Hutchinson

believed it was not necessary to follow god or man to be saved. trial in 1638 where she stated god had talked to her directly. she was banished and went to Rhode Island. killed by indians along w/family in NY

Act of Toleration

1649 in Maryland=protected all Christians, but condemned any who denied the divinity of Jesus. As a result Maryland had a lot of Roman Catholics. It was created because protestants were trying to restrict Catholics.

Dominion of New England

1686 created by royal authority imposed from London. Tried to heighten colonial defense, created efficiency in administering the navigation laws = trade.

Edmund Andros

Affiliation with the church of England. Headquarters in Boston. He was an english military man who taxed heavily and enforced english law in Boston. He was killed by a Boston mob after the Glorious Revolution

Society of friends (quakers)

Arose in England mid 1600s. quaked under religious emotion. refuse taxes to the church of england. They were very offensive to authority.

William Penn

attracted to Quaker faith. got a grand in 1681 started pennsylvania. advertised very well. not appreciated because he was friends with the despised king. he was imprisoned for debt and treason

Headright system

- Employed in both Virginia and Maryland, it grand the right to fifty acres of land to whoever paid the passage of a laborer to encourage the importation of servant workers.

Bacon's rebellion

Led by Nathaniel Bacon, thousands of poor servants and workers broke out against the governor Berkeley in 1676. Ended when Bacon dies of disease and Berkeley suppressed rebels cruelly.

Angelican Church

Another name for the Church of England, official faith in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York in 1775. In America, Anglican church was less powerful despite the vigorous attempts to impose it.
Congregational Church (Puritans) - The church that grown out of the Puritan church was formally established in all the New England colonies.

King Phillip's War

In 1675, Metacom forged an alliance of Indians and assaulted English villages throughout New England. The war slowed the westward march of English settlement in New England for decades.

Halfway Covenant

New formula for church membership that weakened the distinction between the elect and others, further diluting the spiritual purity of the original settlers' godly community. By sacrificing the strict religious purity, this covenant allowed for more participation from others.

Salem witch trials

Brief period when witch hunts ran rampant. It showed the widening social stratification as well as the fear of many religious traditionalists that the Puritan heritage was being eclipsed by Yankee commercialism.

Great awakening

An exploding religious revival that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. It was first ignited in Northampton by an intellectual pastor Jonathan Edward.

Jonathan Edwards

Starter of the Great Awakening. He discredited salvation through good work and affirmed the need for complete dependence on God's grace.

John Locke

widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon. His writings influenced many American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.

Mercantilism

An economic doctrine that says government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and security of a state. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade. It was a motive for colonial expansion.

Salutary neglect

Relaxing of the royal grip on the colonial trade shortly after England's Glorious Revolution when resented Navigation Laws were only weakly enforced.

Stono rebellion

Under the harsh conditions of slavery, the slaves along the Stono river tried to march to Spanish Florida in 1739. (South Carolina slave revolt) They were stopped by the local militia.

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