the ways in which thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by social interaction
fundamental attribution error
people tend toward dispositional attributions; the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneselff favorably
self fulfilling prophecy
prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
socially defined pattern of behavior
how we ought to behave
explicit and implicit constraints on behaviors
stanford prison experiment
Male college students volunteered to spend time in a simulated prison devised by psychologist Philip Zimbrado. Some he randomly designed as guards; gave them uniforms, billy clubs etc. Remainder became prisoners; locked in barren cells, wore embarassing outfits. The volunteers self consciously "played" their roles, the simulation became too real.
cognitive dissonance theory
people strive to keep their attitudes consistent over time; the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
people adopt behaviors and feelings of other group members; adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
As a participant in the study, you arrive at the experiment location in time to take a seat at a table where five people are already seated. A line test is given, and confederates choose the wrong answer, the test is to see if you conform to the wrong answer or not.
The electric shocking switch experiment, to see if the volunteer will continue to obey commands and shock people or stop
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
stronger responses on simple or well learned tasks in the presence of others
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
sexual passion and desire
deep affectionate attachment
unselfish regard for welfare of others
more people involved less likely to help
return help to those that have helped us