Biology Chapter 2

17 terms by L3gitProProQuick-NoScop3 

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First semester Exam study

ATP

a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue

Carbohydrates

Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.

Catalyst

something that causes an important event to happen

Chemical Bond

the force that holds two atoms together

Covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

DNA

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

Dehydration

the process of extracting moisture

Element

an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up

Enzyme

any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Hemoglobin

a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color

Hydrolysis

a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds

Lipid

an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

Nucleic Acid

an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Polymer

a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

RNA

ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

Substrate

the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment

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