the study of law and legal philosophy
laws dealing with crimes and their punishments
a serious criminal offense punishable by a prison sentence of more than one year
criminal offense, less serious than a felony, punishable by one year or less in prison
law that doesn't involve criminal matters. also known as tort law. Usually deals with rights of individual groups and businesses
a noncriminal lawsuit, brought to enforce a right or redress wrong
the person against whom a claim is made.
in a civil case, the injured party who brings legal action against the alleged wrongdoer
the state or federal government's attorney in a criminal case
beyond a reasonable doubt
the level of proof required to convict a person of a crime.
preponderance of the evidence
standard of proof used in a civil suit; the amount of proof that a party must have to win a case.
basic principle of our legal system, limits government to powers provided by people
separation of powers
the division of powers among the branches of our government
written laws enacted by legislatures
checks and balances
the power of each of the branches of the government to limit the power of each other
the process by which courts decide if laws are constitutional
the division of power between the states and federal government
bill of rights
the first ten amendments the the constitution, they guarantee basic rights to citizens
states that U.S. laws and treaties must be followed, even if even if state and local laws disagree
a draft of a considered law
what the lawmakers wanted the law to mean
proceedings that are open to the public
a court proceeding
taking a case to a higher court for a rehearing
court decision on a legal question that guides future cases with similar questions
a pact between nations
the process of discussing an issue to reach a agreement
mutual agreement between two sides in a civil case, it settles or ends the dispute
a way of ending a dispute without going to trial
act of settling a dispute between two parties
the people directly concerned with or taking part in any legal matter
judicial system used in the U.S. It allows parties to present evidence to an impartial group or judge
European form of judicial system where judges help gather evidence and question witnesses
latin phrase. lawyers can question jurors to see if they will be impartial
removal for cause
part of jury selection process. after voir dire. it is the process when lawyers can change jurors if they think that they aren't impartial
lawyers can remove some jurors without cause
error of law
a mistake made by a judge in legal procedures or rulings during a trial that can allow the case to be appealed
in a trial, written opinion of the minority of judges who disagree with the majority
powers that congress is believed to have according to the constitution
powers granted to congress in the constitution, also called enumerated or expressed powers
petitions for certiorari
formal application by a party to have a decision by a lower court reviewed by a supreme court
due process of law
the idea that everyone is entitled to a fair trial
a down payment to a lawyer to hire them
fee paid to an attorney, a percent of the money awarded to the client
taking away a lawyer's license due to illegal practices
lawsuit against a lawyer because they didn't follow standards for trials
imprisonment by the state
when the community works works with the police to lower the crime rate.
unwritten agreement to submit forms to interrogation or questioning
a repeat criminal offender
restoring something to its owner
state of mind
what you are thinking
the reason a person commits a crime
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