Chapter 15

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Access control policy

A set of rules established by an organisation that specify what types of network communication are permitted and denied.

Broadband

Network technologies that generally provided data transfer speeds greater than 128K bps

Bus topology

A LAN configuration in which all nodes share a common line

Cable modem

A devices that allows computer networks communication using the cable TV hook-up in a home

Client/server model

A distributed approach in which a client makes requests of a server and the server responds

Computer network

A collection of computing devices connected so that they can communicated and share resources

Data transfer rate (bandwidth)

The speed with which data is moved from one place to another on a network

Digital subscriber line (DSL)

An Internet connection made using a digital signal on regular phone lines

Domain name

The part of a host name that specifies a specific organisation or group

Domain name server

A computer that attempts to translate a host name into an IP address.

Domain name system

A distributed system for managing host name resolution

Download

Receiving data on your home computer from the Internet

Ethernet

The industry standard for local-area networks, based on a bus topology

File server

A computer dedicated to storing and managing files for a network

Firewall

A gateway machine and its software that protects a network by filtering the traffic it allows.

Gateway

A node that handle communication between its LAN and other networks

Host number

The part of an IP address that specifies a particular host on the network

Hostname

A name made up of words separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet; corresponds to a particular IP address

Internet

A wide-area networks that spans the planet

Internet backbone

A set of high-speed networks carrying Internet traffic

Internet Protocol (IP)

The network protocol that deals with routing of packets through interconnected networks to the final destination

Internet service provider (ISP)

A company providing access to the Internet

Interoperability

The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines and from multiple vendors to communicate.

IP Address

An address made up of four numeric values separated by dots that uniquely indicates a computer on the internet

Local-area network (LAN)

A network connecting a small number of nodes in a close geographic area

Metropolitan-area network (MAN)

A network infrastructure developed for a large city

MIME Type

A standard for defining the format of files that are included as email attachments or on websites.

Network address

The part of an IP address that specifies a specific network

Node (host)

Any addressable device attached to a network

Open System

A system that is based on a common model of network architecture and an accompanying suite of protocols.

Open systems interconnection reference model

A seven-layer logical breakdown of network interaction to facilitate communication standards

Packet

A unit of data sent across a network

Packet switching

The approach to a network communication in which packets are individually routed to their destination, then reassembled

Phone modem

A devices that converts computer data in an analog audio signal and back again

Ping

A program used to test whether a particular network computer is active and reachable

Port

A numeric designation corresponding to a particular high-level port.

Proprietary System

A system that uses technologies kept private by a particular commercial vendor

Protocol

A set of rules that defines how data is formatted that is processed on a network

Protocol stack

Layers of protocols that build and rely on each other.

Repeater

A network device that strengthens and propagates a signal along a long communication line

Ring Topology

A LAN configuration in which all nodes are connect in a closed loop

Router

A network device that directs a packet between networks toward its final destination

Star Topology

A LAN configuration in which a central node controls all message traffic

TCP/IP

A suite of protocols and programs that support low-level network communication

Top-level domain (TLD)

The last section of a domain name, specifying the type of organisation or its country or origin.

Trace route

A program that shows the route a packet takes across the Internet

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

The network protocol that breaks messages into packets, reassembles them at the destination, and takes care of errors.

Upload

Sending data from your home computer to a destination on the Internet

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

An alternative to TCP that achieves higher transmission speeds at the cost of reliability.

Web server

A computer dedicated to responding to requests for web pages

Wide-area network (WAN)

A network connecting two or more local-area networks

Wireless

A network connection made without physical wires

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