Theories that placed the earth motionless at the center of the universe with all celestial bodies revolving around it
When: 2nd century
Problems addressed: Aristotle came up with Geocentric theory way before Ptolemy expanded on it. People wanted to know more about the planets and stars.
Solutions:Ptolemy discovered theories that placed the earth motionless at the center of the universe with all celestial bodies revolving around it.
Significance: The Ptolemaic system dominated astronomy until the idea of a heliocentric universe came from Copernicus.
Who: Aristotle originally came up with it in 4th century AD, but Ptolemy expanded it in 2nd century AD.
What: Theory that the Earth was the center of the universe
When: 4th century AD
Where:Theory started in Greece
Why: God had deliberately put the Earth in the center, making Earth a special place on which life happened.
Profession: Danish astronomer
When: Before 1601(When Brahe died)
Accomplishments: Produced mountains of data based on his observations of the stars.
Impact: Left his data for his assistant Kepler to work with
Who: Nicolaus Copernicus
When: Early 1500s
Problems addressed: After 25 years of research Copernicus came up with the heliocentric theory. Heliocentric theory did not explain planet's orbits.
Solution: Because he knew clergy and church would possibly punish him for his ideas, he published his thoughts on his last year of life, the book was called On the Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies.
Impact: Scientists used his research as a foundation for their research.
What:During the enlightenment, it was known as the introduction of mathematical methods into philosophy
Who: René Descartes, Isaac Newton
Who: Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
Problem: Bacon believed that to better understand the world, scientists would generate practical information that would improve people's lives. Descartes believed everything was wrong until proven other wise.
Solution: The scientific method was born. It begins with a problem/question, a hypothesis is formed, then the experiment, and finally the scientist will analyze their data to form a conclusion.
Impact: Modern scientific methods are based on the ideas of Bacon and Descartes.
When: mid 1500s
Where: Throughout Europe
Major Participants: Isaac Newton, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Janssen, Leeuwenhoek
Why: Scholars began to challenge the ideas of ancient thinkers and the church. Travelers spread different types of information, and sailors improved navigation using science.
Accomplished: Science went from being based off of ancient thinkers, to close observations and data collected from research and experiments.
Impact: We know the universe is Heliocentric, we know that planets are not made of perfect matter, the scientific method, the Laws of Gravity were born, all of the math that Newton created such as calculus.
Occupation: An Italian scientist
Accomplishments: Announced Jupiter had 4 moons, the sun had dark spots, and that earths moon had an uneven, rugged surface.
Impact: The idea that the moon and stars were made of perfect substance was shattered.
Occupation:English statesman and writer
Accomplishments: Bacon believed that to better understand the world, scientists would generate practical information that
would improve people's lives. He encouraged scientists to use empiricism, or the experimental method.
Impact: Modern scientific methods are based off of his ideas.
Occupation: English Scientist
When: mid 1600s
Accomplishments: Discovered that the same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. Created universal law of gravity.
Impact: Brought all of Copernicus, Kepler, and Descartes's ideas under one theory of motion.
Who: Based off of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes's ideas
Problem addressed: At the beginning of an experiment, a scientist will create and unproven assumption
Solution: Through a science experiment the scientist can test their hypothesis.
Impact: Is a big part of the Scientific Method.
Occupation: Cleric and astronomer
Accomplishments: Created Heliocentric theory, but did not explain why planets move the way they do.
Impact: We now know that the universe is heliocentric, not geocentric.
Occupation: unknown, possibly a scientist
Accomplishments: Developed analytical geometry, Relied on math and logic, believed everything was wrong until proven right, "I think, therefore I am."
Impact: Analytical geometry is a useful tool for research, his ideas helped create the Scientific method.
Occupation: Tycho Brahe's assistant, mathematician
Accomplishments: Continued Brahe's work and concluded that there were mathematical laws governing, found planets revolve around the sun in ellipticals.
Impact: Made mathematical sense of Tycho Brahe's observations, found planets revolve around the sun in ellipticals.
Occupation: Danish Eyeglass maker
Accomplishments: Created the first microscope
Impact: Made an instrument that could see extremely small objects.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Occupation: Dutch drapery merchant and amateur scientist
Accomplishments: Used microscope to observe bacteria in tooth scrapings, and red blood cells.
Impact: Found a useful way to use a microscope
Occupation: Galileo's student
Accomplishments: developed the first barometer, a tool for measuring atmospheric pressure and predicting weather.
Impact: Helped predict weather and atmospheric pressure
Accomplishments: Created the first thermometer using mercury in glass
Impact: Made an instrument to record temperature
Accomplishments: created another scale for the mercury thermometer.
Impact: Made a second way to measure temperature
Occupation: Flemish Physician
Accomplishments: Dissected human bodies and published his observations
Impact: Proved Galen's assumption that human's anatomy was the same as pigs.
When: late 1700s
Accomplishments: Created a vaccine for polio using a small amount of cowpox.
Impact: Created the world's first vaccination
When: Late 1600s
Accomplishments: Pioneered use of the scientific method, Proposed matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways.
Impact: Known as the founder of modern chemistry for a reason.