the national policy of taking control of another country or territory to gain land, power, or wealth. Imperialists can take over by military force, by controlling trade, or by reorganizing the government of another country
a feeling of love and pride for one's nation that made imperialism popular
used the evolution theory of Charles Darwin to support a racism that defined Europeans as superior to other races
Chinese rulers during imperialism that failed to respond effectively to imperialism, allowing China to become dependent on Western states and unable to industrialize
massive Chinese rebellion involving an odd form of Christianity and that wanted extreme changes in China. At one point they held Nanjing and threatened the Qing dynasty, but then gentry landowners crushed it
drug which Europeans imported into China, it was illegal and caused economic problems and many addicts. the suppression of its sale caused the Opium Wars
Opium Wars (1839-42, 1856-8)
two wars between Westerners and China over opium importation into China, which China tried to end. China lost and had to sign the unequal treaties
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
treaty which ended the first Opium War and limited Chinese sovereignty because of the concessions to England - Hong Kong, money, low tariffs, open five ports to trade, and access for foreigners
series of treaties, ending the Opium Wars, in which China made major concessions to Western powers - including giving Hong Kong to Britain, opening five ports to trade, and making it easier to travel and trade in China
China's program of internal reform (effort to handle the effects of imperialism) in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West (military, factories). It failed, leading to the Boxer Rebellion and the end of the Qing Dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed
Commodore Matthew Perry
U.S. Navy Commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the world.
military rulers of Japan from 1600-1850 who acted in the name of the powerless emperor, imposed strict rules on communication and society, prevented civil war between feudal lords but was unable to deal with changes in society
armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became and administrative elite, but they did not lost their special privileges until the Meiji Restoration
when a group of young samurai took over politically for the Tokugawa shogunate, this was a result of American intrusion in the form of Commodore Matthew Perry. The samurais said they were restoring power to the Meiji emperor.
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji.
an ancient religious tradition featuring ancestors and nature spirits that was elevated to the status of an official state cult during Japan's nineteenth-century transformation
colonies of Japan in which the Japanese were just as cruel toward their subjects as the Europeans were to theirs, despite the fact that many saw the Japanese rise to power as anti-European imperialist. The Japanese imitated the Europeans.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
when U.S. President James Monroe declared that European nations could no longer build empires in the Americas and that the United States would fight them if they did. This drove the Europeans to build empires in Africa and Asia
naturalist who developed his theory of evolution
an ideology that Europeans used to explain how they were able to conquer the world, it uses the evolution theory of Charles Darwin and defines Europeans as superior to other peoples, giving them the responsibility of ruling
Charles Darwin's theory that the earth changes by the forces of nature alone, it challenged the religious view
as environments change the species that adapt survive, this is how evolution works
a place to sell goods. The Europeans used Asia as a market.
title of military ruler of Japan, the Tokugawa dynasty held this office from 1600-1858
response to imperialism in which you keep the tradition of your country (China does this and it fails)
response to imperialism in which you adapt to industrialization, liberalism, and constitutionalism (Japan imperializes and succeeds)
a mildly addictive stimulant that contains caffeine, popular in Britain, leading to an economic import/export problem with China, which was solved by the export of opium into China
city in China that was the only port that Europeans could trade through, also known as Canton
way of the warrior, code of the samurai: not afraid of death, only of dishonor and shame, they serve their lords and value obedience and honor
samurai ritual suicide as a means of atonement for failure to restore honor
the process of bringing states into the control of another, separate state. The Europeans did this widely in Africa and Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
British East India Co.
trading company that traded in and took over southeast Asia (India) through a century of alliances
"scramble for Africa"
the process of European states dividing the continent of Africa between themselves, it happened in only 25 years (1875-1900) and was a deliberate takeover
people who lived in conquered colonies that were educated in the imperial powers' language and practices, they moved into their country's professional classes but were discouraged by the limitations put on their race and the inequality
Indian Rebellion (1857-8)
massive rebellion against colonial rule in India that began when a cartridge that used animal grease (pigs and cows sacred) in the army, spread because of many complaints against British rule. It was crushed and ended up with the British taking direct control over India
the extreme social and political separation of whites and blacks, it happened especially in South Africa because there were more whites
European notion of a backwards, primitive Africa that represented an earlier stage of human development made up of simple and distinct tribes
a practice in which natives in European colonies were obligated to work for the state or ten to twelve days a year. The work was often hard and officials abusive
Congo Free State
African nation governed by Belgium during colonial times
Leopold II of Belgium
governor of the Congo Free State who authorized private companies to cruely force villagers to collect rubber in the forest. This practice didn't allow for the villagers to grow food for themselves, and they were often killed or maimed if there was no more rubber
agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves. The increase in this that colonialism caused led to economic booms in African nations, but also led to problems in human resources and changes for women.
work that Asian and African colonists did in European-owned businesses such as plantations, mines, or construction. They went to the cities for work because they needed money, had lost their land, or were ordered to. The work was hard and the living conditions deadly. The urbanization in Asia and Africa led to opportunities and a large amount of urban poor living in poor conditions
Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
unequal treaty between America and Japan in which Japan agreed to open to trade and extraterritoriality
result: Japan westernizes and Tokugawa government loses face
The Black Ships
ships that Commodore Matthew Perry took to Japan in order to open Japan to the world for trade
Ram Mohun Roy
Indian reformist with a Western education who wanted Indians to learn from Europeans and abolish some traditional practices, while still believing in Hinduism
conversion to Christianity was widespread in non-Muslim Africa, which can be attributed to less confidence in their own cultures since the European takeover, oppressed groups searching for freedom, and the large amount of African missions and teachers. However, Christianity was soon Africanized as people began to mix it with their cultural beliefs. In India Christianity forced the distinction of Hinduism and Indian Muslims.
religion that Indians were forced to separate, distinct, and unify with the arrival of Christianity in India. This distinction also separated Indian Muslims from Hindus
new African identity - contact with people of African descent in other cultures led to a sense of belonging in a pan-African world
European notion of African divisions that led to people identifying themselves with a group that had similar language or customs. This was helpful when they had to move to cities for work in finding friends and assistance.
European ideology that it was their responsibility to guide the inferior Asians or Africans, as a parent would their child
British poet born in India, fan of imperialism. wrote the White Man's Burden
The White Man's Burden
poem by Rudyard Kipling about the duty of Europeans to bring civilization to the rest of the world
samurai without a lord to serve
the citizens of one state follow the laws of their home state while in another state
British citizens followed British law while in China